A calibration-free evapotranspiration mapping technique for spatially-distributed regional-scale hydrologic modeling
Monthly evapotranspiration (ET) rates over Hungary for 2000-2008 are mapped at a spatial scale of about 1 km with the help of MODIS daytime land surface temperature as well as sunshine duration, air temperature and humidity data. Mapping is achieved by a linear transformation of MODIS daytime land surface temperature values employing the complementary relationship of evaporation. Validation of the ET rates has been performed at spatial scales spanning almost three magnitudes from a few hundred meters to about a hundred kilometers employing eddy-covariance (EC) measurements and catchment water balance closures. Typically the unbiased ET estimates are within 15% of EC values at a monthly basis, within 7% at an annual, and within only a few percent at a multi-year basis. The ET estimates yield an especially remarkable match (relative error of 0.2%, R2 = 0.95) with high-tower EC measurements at a monthly basis. The spatial distribution of the ET estimates confirm earlier, complex regional hydrologic model results and observations as well as yields a perfect estimate of the country's precipitation recycling index (the ratio of the multi-year mean ET and precipitation rates spatially aggregated for the whole country) of 89.2% vs an observed value of 89.6%. The CREMAP method is very simple, easy to implement, requires minimal data, calibration-free, and works accurately when conditions for the complementary relationship are met.
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