A LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) for biological tissue impedance analysis and equivalent circuit modelling

Open access

Abstract

Under an alternating electrical signal, biological tissues produce a complex electrical bioimpedance that is a function of tissue composition and applied signal frequencies. By studying the bioimpedance spectra of biological tissues over a wide range of frequencies, we can noninvasively probe the physiological properties of these tissues to detect possible pathological conditions. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can provide the spectra that are needed to calculate impedance parameters within a wide range of frequencies. Before impedance parameters can be calculated and tissue information extracted, impedance spectra should be processed and analyzed by a dedicated software program. National Instruments (NI) Inc. offers LabVIEW, a fast, portable, robust, user-friendly platform for designing data-analyzing software. We developed a LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) to analyze the electrical impedance spectra for tissue characterization in medical, biomedical and biological applications. Here, we test, calibrate and evaluate the performance of LEBISDI on the impedance data obtained from simulation studies as well as the practical EIS experimentations conducted on electronic circuit element combinations and the biological tissue samples. We analyze the Nyquist plots obtained from the EIS measurements and compare the equivalent circuit parameters calculated by LEBISDI with the corresponding original circuit parameters to assess the accuracy of the program developed. Calibration studies show that LEBISDI not only interpreted the simulated and circuit-element data accurately, but also successfully interpreted tissues impedance data and estimated the capacitive and resistive components produced by the compositions biological cells. Finally, LEBISDI efficiently calculated and analyzed variation in bioimpedance parameters of different tissue compositions, health and temperatures. LEBISDI can also be used for human tissue impedance analysis for electrical impedance-based tissue characterization, health analysis and disease diagnosis.

Introduction

Biological tissues are made of complex three-dimensional arrangements of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix called extracellular fluid (ECF). Cells contain intracellular fluid (ICF), called protoplasm, which in an animal cell is enclosed by the cell membrane (CM) and in a plant cell is surrounded by both a CM and a cell wall (CW). When subjected to an alternating current signal, animal and plant cells differ in their electrical responses, indicating that both tissue composition and the frequency of an applied AC signal affect their electrical responses [1, 2, 3, 4]. The electrical behavior of the tissues is usually quantified by its complex bioelectrical impedance [1, 2, 3, 4], which is the physical quantity that we reconstruct from the experimental measurements. Because bioelectrical impedance depends on the physiological and physiochemical status of the probed tissue and because it also varies from subject to subject and with changes in the health status of the tissue [5, 6], such as inflammation, infection and disease, studying how a tissue responds to frequency can provide valuable information about its anatomy and physiology. Many researchers [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23] have investigated electrical bioimpe-dance as an effective, noninvasive method to probe the pathological status of biological tissues.

For example, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) [7, 8, 9, 10], electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) [11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21], impedance plethysmography (IPG) [22, 23] and impedance cardiography (ICG) [24, 25, 26] reveal the impedance response of biological tissues at one, two or more specified frequencies (f). EIS has been proven as an effective technique for noninvasive tissue characterization in medical, biomedical and biological applications [27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36]. Because EIS is a more generalized method that provides impedance variations over a wide range of frequencies, it can be used on its own to provide information that explains other bioelectrical phenomena like dielectric polarization [37, 38, 39, 40, 41], dielectric relaxation [37, 38, 39, 40, 41] and dielectric dispersion [37, 38, 39, 40, 41].

Impedance spectra obtained from EIS can be used to study the overall anatomy and physiology of organic tissues. Impedance parameter plots, such as Nyquist plots (Imaginary part of Z versus Real part of Z), impedance (Z) versus frequency (f) plots (Bode plots), conductivity (σ) versus frequency (f) plots and permittivity (ε) versus frequency (f) plots, are popular tools for visualizing different aspects of bioelectrical impedance. In particular, Nyquist plots distinguish real from imaginary parts of bioimpedance and serve as a guide to define equivalent electrical circuit parameters. Because equivalent electrical circuit models or equivalent circuit models (ECM) [6, 13] are very useful for understanding the anatomical, physiological and compositional aspects of biological tissues, an accurate analysis of data plots is required for effective assessment of a tissue’s properties.

Impedance analyzers are used either to measure the electrical impedance of materials at a single frequency or to study impedance variation over a wide range of frequencies. Impedance analyzers are typically developed with selected current frequency limits and other fixed specifications. Occasionally, changes to measurement parameters are required for a specific application, making the individual development of impedance measurement systems [42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50] advantageous and essential. Impedance analyzers or the impedance measurement hardware developed as low-cost [42, 46] and application-specific instrumentation measure the impedance data, but it requires some complementary dedicated software to process and analyze the impedance response of materials. More specifically, this software is required to calculate impedance parameters and extract tissue information by identifying the equivalent electrical circuit of the material being tested. Modern electronics technology offers a number of fast, portable, robust, user-friendly platforms for analog or digital data acquisition and signal processing that can be suitably utilized for developing a standalone impedance measurement workbench. When a standalone impedance measurement workbench is developed to collect the impedance data, it is found essentially required to be complemented by any software program or virtual instrumentation such as LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) [51] for impedance data analyzing.

Here, we developed a LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) for tissue impedance analysis in medical, biomedical and biological applications by extracting the equivalent circuit parameters of biological tissues using their Nyquist plots. We tested and calibrated the LEBISDI software with both the computer-simulated impedance data and experimental impedance data collected from a number of electronic circuit combinations developed by high-precision resistors, capacitors and inductors using a standard impedance analyzer using low amplitude, sinusoidal current signal. We then used LEBISDI to interpret impedance data collected from fruits and vegetables under different physiological conditions. We conducted EIS studies on these tissues using a standard impedance analyzer. We used LEBISDI to analyze their Nyquist plots to calculate and correlate the electrical impedance parameters of the compositions, structures and conditions of the tissues.

Materials and methods

2.1 Bioelectrical Impedance (Zb) and Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

Biological tissues comprise cells and an extracellular matrix. Both have their own electrical behavior and collectively produce a complex, frequency-dependent bioelectrical impedance, Zb(f) [39]. The impedance Zb(f) and its frequency-dependent phase angle, θb(f) are given by:

Zb(f)=Rb(f)jXb(f)
θb(f)=tan1(XbRb)

where Rb(f) and Xb(f) are the real and imaginary parts of Zb respectively and j is the complex number √(-1). Both Rb(f) and Xb(f) depend on the signal frequency and tissue composition such that

Rb(f)=|Z(f)|cos(θb(f))
Xb(f)=|Z(f)|sin(θb(f)).

EIS measures Zb and its phase angle (θb) of a test subject by injecting a constant amplitude, alternating current (AC) signal (I(f)) at different frequency points, fi (fi: f1, f2, f3, … fn), and by measuring the boundary potentials (V(fi)) through using a linear array of the surface electrodes attached to the subject (Figure 1) though other configurations could also be used such as placing the electrodes like the corners of a rectangle [52].

Fig.1
Fig.1

Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies using the two-probe and four-probe technique. (a) EIS measurements with an impedance analyzer using two-electrode method. (b) EIS measurements with an impedance analyzer using four-electrode method. (c) Current injection and voltage measurement using the four-probe method of the impedance measurement system.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

The impedance of a material is generally measured either by the two-electrode method [8, 20] or four-electrode method [8, 20, 50]. In the two-electrode method, as the name indicates, two surface electrodes are used for current injection and voltage measurement. As shown in Figure 1a, in the two-electrode method the current injection and voltage measurement are conducted through the same electrode pair [8, 20]. Thus, the measurement data contains the effect of contact impedance (Zc). To avoid the contact impedance problem, the impedance measurement is conducted with the four-electrode method as shown in Figure 1b and Figure 1c. Thus, the four-probe method (Figure 1b) of the impedance measurement process is usually preferred to make the measurement insensitive to the impedance of the electrodes and wiring systems. In the four-probe method, a frequency-dependent constant amplitude sinusoidal current (I(f)) is injected through the outermost two electrodes, called the current or driving electrodes (red electrodes in Figure 1b and 1c), and the frequency-dependent AC voltage (V(f)) is measured [13] across the two inner electrodes, called the voltage or sensing electrodes (blue electrodes in Figure 1b and 1c). From Ohm’s law of AC theory, Zb(f) is the transfer function of the test subject, which is calculated from the voltage-current data by dividing V(f) by I(f):

Zb(f)=V(f)I(f)

In bioimpedance spectroscopy, variations in bioelectrical impedance over frequencies are represented as impedance curves and are analyzed to characterize the tissue. As an example, the real part (Rb) and imaginary part (Xb) of Zb at each frequency point (fi: i = 1, 2, 3, …, n) are calculated and plotted (along the x-axis and y-axis, respectively) to obtain the Nyquist Plot [6, 13] or the Rb-Xb spectrum.

2.2 Equivalent Electrical Circuit Modeling

The lumped electrical impedance value of any material (non-biological and biological) measured at a particular frequency can be represented by the impedance obtained from its equivalent electrical circuit model, which can be a combination of circuit elements such as resistance (R), capacitance (C) and inductance (L). If we define the complex electrical impedance (Z) for any particular material (either non-biological or biological), then

Z(f)=Re(Z(f))jIm(Z(f))=Rz(f)jXz(f),

where Re(Z(f)) = Rz(f) represents the magnitude of the real part of complex Z and Im(Z(f)) = Xz(f) represents the magnitude of the imaginary part of the Z(f).

If the material contains both capacitive and inductive elements, then the reactive component (Xz) will have two components called the frequency-dependent inductive reactance component, XL(f), and the frequency-dependent capacitive reactance component, XC(f). Thus, we have:

Z(f)=Rz(f)+j(XL(f)XC(f)).

Similarly, in EIS studies on biological material, the measured Zb of the test subject can also be represented by an equivalent impedance (Zeq). This Zeq can be obtained from a combination of some electrical circuit elements (e.g., R and/or C) because the magnetic effect of the biological tissues at low frequency is negligible [53]. Moreover, the equivalent circuit model of biological tissues may also contain some special circuit elements, such as a constant phase element (CPE) [13] or Warburg impedance (W) [13] and/or some complex bioelectrical phenomena occurring inside the biological tissues due to the physiological changes that take place when they are subjected to AC excitation. Warburg impedance represents the electrode’s interfaces and the CPE is often interpreted as a parameter describing the distribution of relaxation times [54] in the system, e.g. due to a distribution of cell sizes.

The Nyquist plot is the plot of imaginary part of impedance (Xz) versus the real part of impedance (Rz). The approximate equivalent circuit model of the material can be found from the Xz-Rz curve (Nyquist plots) which is generally obtained from the EIS data. Electrical impedance spectroscopic analysis followed by the equivalent circuit modeling establishes the relationship between the tissue property and its impedance response. As for example, the Nyquist plots of some basic circuit models have been discussed in the Figure 2.

Fig.2
Fig.2

Nyquist plots for different circuit combinations. (a) Nyquist plots for a circuit combination containing a resistor r and a capacitor C in series, (b) Nyquist plots for a circuit combination containing a resistor Rp and a capacitor Cp in parallel (Rp||Cp), (c) Nyquist plots for a circuit combination containing two sub-circuit blocks with a series resistance of Rs and the parallel combination of Rp and a capacitor Cp (Rp||Cp) (d) Nyquist plots for a circuit combination containing three sub-circuit blocks with a series resistance of Rs, (Rp1||Cp1) and (Rp2 || Cp2). (e) Nyquist plots for a circuit combination containing two sub-circuit blocks, (Rp1||Cp1) and ((Rp2+ Warburg impedance (W)) || Cp2), connected in series.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Figure 2a shows a r-C series circuit and its impedance spectra (Nyquist plot). Figure 2b shows an electrical circuit model containing Rp and Cp connected in parallel and its Nyquist plot. As shown in Figure 2b, the Nyquist plot contains a semi-circular arc that represent the two parallel circuit blocks, (Rp||Cp).

If a model contains a series resistance (r) along with the parallel branch (Rp||Cp) as shown in Figure 2c, the impedance spectra will be shifted toward positive real axis and the amount of the shift will indicate the magnitude of the resistance r. Figure 2d shows an equivalent electrical circuit model of an object containing several R and C components and its impedance spectra. This model contains three sub-circuit blocks or sub-circuit parts connected in series: Rs, (Rp1||Cp1) and (Rp2||Cp2). As shown in Figure 2d, the Nyquist plot contains two semi-circular arcs that represent the two parallel circuit blocks, (Rp1||Cp1) and (Rp2||Cp2). The high-frequency part of the spectra (left side of the graph) cuts the x-axis at a particular distance away from the y-axis, and this distance represents the series resistance (Rs). Similarly, Figure 2e shows the Nyquist plot of a different electrical circuit model, which contains two parts connected in series, (Rp1||Cp1) and ((Rp2+W)||Cp2). Its impedance spectra contain two semi-circular arcs for two parallel circuit blocks, (Rp1||Cp1) and ((Rp2+W)||Cp2). The linear part of the spectra on the low-frequency side (right side of the graph) indicates Warburg impedance (W) [55, 56, 57, 58, 59], resulting from the diffusion effect [58, 59, 60, 61] on electrodes at low frequencies.

In some cases, the Nyquist plots are semi-circular arcs with their centers some distance below the x-axis. These depressed semi-circular Nyquist plots are complex to analyze because of the involvement of the CPE circuit. Figure 3 presents a depressed semi-circular Nyquist plot, where the equivalent circuit contains the CPE in parallel with R. The high-frequency side of the semi-circular arc cuts the x-axis at a particular distance away from the y-axis and the distance represents Rs.

Fig.3
Fig.3

Nyquist plots of circuit combinations containing two sub-circuit blocks: one with series resistance, Rs, and another containing a CPE in parallel with resistance Rp (Rp || CPE).

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

By definition, the impedance of the CPE (ZCPE) shown in Figure 3 is represented as:

ZCPE=Q(1j.ω)n=1Y0(j.2πf)-n,

where Q is the magnitude of ZCPE and Y0=1/Q, j=√−1 and 0<n<1.

Note that the phase angle (ϕ) of ZCPE is frequency independent. It thus remains constant throughout the frequency range of EIS. The ϕ of ZCPE is given by:

ϕ=(90*n).

For an object with CPE, when n is less than 1, the CPE resembles a capacitor, but not a pure capacitor because ϕ is less than 90°. As the value of n increases, CPE gradually becomes more capacitive. At n = 1, Y0 becomes a pure capacitor (CCPE) for which

ZCPE=XC=CCPE(jω)-1=1jωCCPE=jωCCPE=j2πfCCPE

Nyquist plots of the circuits with a CPE are strongly influenced by circuit element combinations. When a material contains CPE and a resistive element, Rp, parallel to each other, the Nyquist plot (R-X plot) of the material will be a semi-circular path depressed by an angle of (1-n)*90°, as shown in Figure 3. But the R-X spectrum of a CPE alone is a straight line, generating an angle of (n*90°) with a positive x-axis (green dotted line in Figure 3).

2.3 Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Biological Tissues

Biological cells and tissues can be modeled by analysis of their impedance responses obtained from EIS studies conducted within a suitable frequency range. The impedance response of a biological cell is strongly influenced by cell composition [62, 63]. The individual electrical properties of each cell’s composition are thus represented by their equivalent electric circuit elements, which can be used to develop an equivalent circuit model of a single cell [6, 13, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70,], as described in the following sections.

Animal cells can be modeled with an equivalent circuit concept as shown in Figure 4. The resistive path created by the ICF in biological cells to an electric signal (Figure 4a) is represented as a resistive element called ICF resistance (RICF). Alternatively, the capacitance [74] offered by the protein-lipid-protein structure [62, 63] of the cell membrane is modeled as cell membrane capacitance (CCM) [5, 6] (Figure 4a).

Fig.4
Fig.4

Equivalent electrical circuit modeling of animal cells. (a) An isolated animal cell and the electrical equivalence of the intracellular fluids (ICF), extracellular fluids (ECF) and the cell membrane (CM). (b) An equivalent electrical circuit model of an isolated animal cell surrounded by ECF.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

The equivalent impedance of the cell membrane and the protoplasm (which comprises cytoplasm and cell organelles) [71, 72] is called ZPPCM (Figure 4b). Because the ECF is made up of conducting solution, it also creates a resistive path [6, 13, 65] (Figure 4a) that exerts an electrical resistance called ECF resistance (RECF). When cells are suspended in or by ECF, RECF becomes a resistive element connected as a parallel branch to the ZPPCM. Therefore, an animal cell suspended in ECFs can be modeled as an equivalent electrical circuit [66, 67, 68, 69, 70] called the equivalent electrical impedance of an animal cell (ZAC), as shown in Figure 4b.

Plant cells (Figure 5a) have cell walls made up of low-conducting materials, thus creating an additional resistive path that produces an electrical resistance called cell wall resistance (RCW). Thus, as the envelope surrounding the cell membrane, RCW is modeled as a resistance connected in parallel with ZPPCM (Figure 5b) of the plant cell. Moreover, similar to the animal cell, ECFs in plant cells also produce resistive paths (Figure 5b). They are thus represented as RECF connected in parallel to the ZPPCMCW, which is the parallel combination of ZPPCM and RCW (i.e., ZPPCM || RCW). Thus, as plant cells contain ECFs, a cell wall, a cell membrane and ICFs, they can be modeled as an equivalent electrical circuit called the equivalent electrical impedance of a plant cell (ZPC), as shown in Figure 5b.

If the plant cell contains a large vacuole, the model can be modified by incorporating the impedance properties exerted by the composition of the vacuole. The vacuole of a plant cell is a cell-like structure made up of vacuole sap surrounded by a vacuole membrane, which is called a tonoplast [73, 74]. Thus, vacuole impedance can be modeled as a separate cell-like structure or a subcell inside the plant cell. The vacuole sap can be considered as the ICF of the vacuole, while the tonoplast can be considered as a membrane. Therefore, the RICF in the equivalent circuit model of a plant cell with vacuoles will be replaced by another subcellular impedance block [73, 74] in which the RECF will be the RICF because the cytoplasm could be considered the extracellular fluid of the vacuole. The equivalent circuit of biological cells can also be modeled with a number of other approaches [1, 75, 76]. The Nyquist plot, Cole-Cole plot [77, 78, 79, 80], impedance equivalent circuit [81, 82], Cole parameter estimation [75, 83, 84] of electrical bioimpedance can be suitably utilized for tissue characterization [34, 85, 86], body composition estimation [84] and disease detection [87]. It is worthwhile to note that the Cole-Cole plot is the Nyquist plot of complex permittivity [77, 78, 79, 80] whereas the Cole plot is for complex impedance or admittance.

Fig.5
Fig.5

Equivalent electrical circuit modeling of plant cells. (a) The anatomy of an isolated plant cell showing intracellular fluids (ICF), extracellular fluids (ECF), the cell membrane (CM) and cell wall (CW). (b) An equivalent electrical circuit model of an isolated plant cell without considering tonoplast capacitance.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

2.4 Impedance Data Generation and Collection

A number of impedance data sets were generated and collected to evaluate the performance of LEBISDI. They are described in Section 2.5. Artificial impedance data were simulated and experimental impedance data were collected from various combinations of high-precision resistors and capacitors. Finally, after evaluating and calibrating LEBISDI, we collected impedance data from fruit and vegetable tissues using an impedance analyzer.

The evaluation of the performance of LEBISDI therefore included three types of impedance data: (i) computer-simulated impedance data, (ii) data generated by EIS studies conducted on real electronic circuit components with an impedance analyzer and (iii) the data collected by EIS studies conducted on fruits and vegetables with an impedance analyzer. Data sets (i) and (ii) were used to evaluate LEBISDI, whereas data set (iii) was used to calculate the equivalent circuit parameter for studying the variation in bioimpedance parameters of different tissue compositions.

2.4.1 PC-Based EIS Data Simulation in Matlab

Different electronic circuit combinations were simulated (Fig. 6) and a number of impedance data sets were generated using a specially developed MATLAB-based electrical impedance data-generating program. The PC-based impedance data generator mathematically calculates complex impedance and its phase angles at a number of frequency points within a particular frequency band (10 Hz to 2 MHz) for a number of circuit combinations called the simulated circuit model (SCM). Using the combinations of different circuit elements such as resistance (R), capacitance (C) and inductance (L), we could develop a capacitive circuit model (CCM) and an inductive circuit model (ICM). Figure 6 shows a few examples of the electronic circuit combinations studied; each has different values of resistance and capacitance connected in parallel and is tested to calculate the simulated impedance (ZS) within a specific frequency range.

Fig.6
Fig.6

(a-d) Simulated circuit models developed with different electronic components and different circuit combinations of computer-simulated electrical impedance data. (e-f) Real circuit models developed with different circuit combinations of real electronic circuit components used for impedance data generation with an impedance analyzer.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Real and imaginary parts of the simulated complex impedance obtained from all SCMs were calculated in the impedance data generator and stored in a .txt file in a desktop computer.

For a C CM made of a resistor and a capacitor connected in parallel, the real part of the impedance (Rz) and the imaginary part of the impedance (Xz) are respectively calculated as

Rz=R(1ωC)2R2+(1ωC)2

and

Xz=R2(1ωC)R2+(1ωC)2.

The modulus of the impedance and the phase angle (θ) are respectively calculated as

|Z|=Rz2+Xz2

and

θ=arctan(XzRz).

For the ICM of a resistor and inductor connected in parallel, the real part of the impedance (Rz) and the imaginary part of the impedance (Xz) are respectively calculated as

Rz=R(ωL)2R2+(ωL)2

and

Xz=R2(ωL)R2+(ωL)2.

The modulus of the impedance and the phase angle (θ) are calculated using the formula as shown in the equations (13) and (14).

2.4.2 EIS Data Collection from Real Electronic Circuits with an Impedance Analyzer

Impedance data were also generated by conducting EIS studies on a real circuit model (RCM) developed with different circuit combinations of real electronic circuit components. A number of RCMs were developed with parallel and series-parallel combinations by high-precision resistors (1% tolerance) and capacitors (1% tolerance). EIS studies were conducted with a QuadTech7600 (QuadTech Inc., USA) impedance analyzer [88] using the four-probe technique [89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94]. The EIS study was conducted with circuit combinations by injecting a 1 mA constant sinusoidal current at different frequencies and the impedances and phase angles were measured at 100 discrete frequency points within a frequency band of 10 Hz to 2 MHz.

2.4.3 EIS Data Collection from Fruits and Vegetables with an Impedance Analyzer

The impedance responses of fruits and vegetables were studied by a four-electrode-method-based EIS using a QuadTech7600 impedance analyzer with a 1 mA constant sinusoidal applied current. The impedance variations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), carrot (Daucus carota), pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta), bottle gourd (Lagenaria vulgaris), banana cortex or pseudo stem of the banana tree (Musa acuminata), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L), bringle (Solanum melongena), mango (Mangifera indica), apple (Malus domestica) and orange (Citrus sinensis) were studied to measure the Zb and θb at 100 discrete frequency points within a frequency band of 10 Hz to 2 MHz.

Nyquist plots were obtained from Rz and Xz which were calculated from Z and θ. QuadTech 7000-04 alligator clip leads (QuadTech Inc., USA), which are generally used to connect to large multiterminal devices, were used [88] as an interface between the surface electrodes and the impedance analyzer. The QuadTech 7000-04 comprises a BNC-to-BNC cable, four banana plug adapters and four alligator clips, which easily connect to metal conductors and electrodes. Figure 7a presents a schematic of the four-probe-method-based impedance data collection, which shows the arrangement of the current and voltage electrodes used for the EIS studies we conducted on circuit combinations. Figure 7b presents an EIS data collection schematic of the four-electrode-method-based EIS studies conducted on fruit and vegetable samples with separate current and voltage electrodes. As shown in the Figure 7b, the current signal is injected through the outer driving electrodes (red rectangles) and the voltage data are measured across the inner sensing electrodes (blue rectangles).

Fig.7
Fig.7

EIS data collection with the four-probe method using an impedance analyzer. (a) A schematic of the electronic circuit elements in the EIS data collection using the QuadTech7600 impedance analyzer. (b) A schematic of EIS data collection from fruit and vegetable tissues.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Circuit element studies were performed by directly connecting 7000-04 alligator clips with the circuit leads. EIS for fruit and vegetable samples required that the lead set was used with an ECG electrode-based four-electrode array (EE-FEA). Four QuadTech solid gel Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were fixed on sticky insulating tape and the EE-FEA was developed (Figure 8a). The voltage electrodes were placed between current electrodes, with a distance of 50 mm between voltage electrodes (Figure 8a). In addition, the distance between the current-electrode and the voltage-electrode was maintained by separating the voltage electrodes from the current electrodes by 25 mm (Figure 8a). Fruit and vegetable tissue health and temperature were varied in different EIS studies, whereas the amplitude (1mA r.m.s.) remained constant and the sinusoidal current varied from 10 Hz to 2 MHz (Figure 8b).

Fig.8
Fig.8

EIS studies on fruits and vegetables using the QuadTech7600 impedance analyzer and ECG electrodes. (a) The ECG electrode-based four-electrode array (EE-FEA) used for EIS studies on fruits and vegetables. (b) EIS studies on fruits and vegetables using the QuadTech7600 impedance analyzer.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Prior to EIS studies, all fruits and vegetables were properly cleaned and marked for electrode placement using a measuring tape, and the electrode array was pasted on the skin of the cleaned samples. The QuadTech7000-04 alligator connectors of the impedance analyzer probe were connected to the electrodes by EE-FEA. During EIS studies, Z and θ were set as the primary and secondary parameters, respectively, in the impedance analyzer, and measured at 100 frequency points within 10 Hz to 2 MHz. To study the effect of storage time on vegetable bioimpedance, we conducted EIS studies every 3 days for 22 days on the same samples with the same instrumental setup. To study variation in biological tissue impedance profiles due to boiling, we conducted EIS studies on fruits and vegetables before and after boiling.

2.5 LabVIEW-Based Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopic Data Interpreter (LEBISDI)

The LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) has been developed to study the equivalent circuit parameters of biological tissues using the LabVIEW 2014 software. The NI LabVIEW is a highly productive software development environment that enables the user to obtain a graphical programing and unprecedented hardware integration facility. LabVIEW provides a rapid virtual instrumentation design facility required for the high-speed and highly sophisticated measurement and control system applications. The proposed LEBISDI has been developed with a circle-fitting algorithm and the R-X data are fit to a circular arc from which the center and radius of the circle are calculated. Using the coordinates of the circle’s center, the radius and the other impedance parameters (Zb, θb, Rz and Xz) are calculated. Figures 9a and b show LabVIEW-based graphical user interface (GUI) of the LEBISDI and the Nyquist plot loaded into the LEBISDI respectively.

Fig.9
Fig.9

The LabVIEW-based GUI of the LEBISDI and impedance data loaded in LEBISDI. (a) GUI of LEBISDI and (b) the Nyquist plot obtained in LEBISDI after loading real and imaginary impedance data.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

The impedance data is fed to the LEBISDI as a matrix [Mz]100×3 having three columns: f, Rz and Xz respectively. The impedance data matrix [Mz] is saved in a .txt file though the program and can be easily modified to work with .xls file also. All the 100 rows are the f, Rz and Xz data obtained for a particular frequency point fn. For each frequency data points (fn), the real (Rz(fn)) and imaginary (Xz(fn)) parts of the impedance data are calculated from Zn and θn obtained from the EIS and then are loaded through the GUI of the LEBISDI (Figure 9b) by pressing the “LOAD FILE” button. After that, the “FIT A CIRCLE” button of the LEBISDI GUI is pressed to fit the data along a circular path and the series resistance, parallel resistance, constant phase elements, XMax (the maximum value of Xz) and XMax frequency (i.e., the characteristic frequency (fc)) are calculated.

Results

3.1 LEBISDI Evaluation with Simulated Data

The real and imaginary parts of the simulated impedance data sets were calculated and Nyquist plots were drawn (Figure 10) in the Matlab-based impedance data generator. The real and imaginary parts of impedance were also stored in a .txt file for use with the LEBISDI assessment. The R-X data corresponding to each frequency point were loaded in LEBISDI (Figure 11) from the .txt file and the Nyquist plots are obtained in the GUI.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Nyquist plots obtained from computer simulations on CCM in the Matlab-based impedance data generator.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Nyquist plots of simulated impedance data loaded in the GUI of LEBISDI.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

The Nyquist plots drawn from the real and imaginary parts of the simulated impedance were fitted in LEBISDI to calculate the values of the elements in the circuit combination used in the computer simulation. Impedance parameters calculated by LEBISDI were compared with the actual values of the circuit components used for impedance data simulation to assess the performance of LEBISDI.

Figure 12 shows that the LEBISDI successfully fit the Nyquist plots obtained for all four of the simulated circuit models shown in Figure 6 and accurately calculated the electronic circuit parameters (Table 1). Results from LEBISDI show that the errors found in Rp identification forsimulated circuit models 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 0.0027 %, 0.0187 %, 0.0188 % and 0.0030 %, respectively, and 0.937 %, 0.068 %, 0.068 % and 0.569 %, respectively, for Cp calculations (Table 1). Results also demonstrate that n (power in the CPE model) was equal to 1, indicating that there was no CPE in the designed models, which agrees with results for the simulated models.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Nyquist plots of simulated (capacitive) impedance loaded in LEBISDI after fitting.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Table 1

Impedance parameters and errors calculated by LEBISDI for the capacitive circuit models (CCM) studied.

SCMFrequency (f)Rp(Ω)Cp(F)Error RpError Cp
SCM 110-1kHz0999.971.01E-060.0027 %0.937 %
SCM 210-2MHz0999.819.99E-100.0187 %0.068 %
SCM 310-2MHz9998.129.99E-080.0188 %0.068 %
SCM 410-10kHz1000.039.94E-080.0030 %0.569 %

The impedance data obtained from the inductive circuit models are also analyzed with LEBISDI. The Nyquist plots obtained from the data simulator were loaded and fitted in LEBISDI and the impedance parameters used in the computer simulation, such as parallel resistance (Rp) and parallel inductance (Lp), were calculated. The results obtained from the simulated data analysis of the inductive circuit are presented in Figure 13 and Table 2.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Nyquist plots of simulated (inductive) impedance data loaded in LEBISDI after fitting.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Table 2

Impedance parameters and errors calculated by LEBISDI for the inductive circuit models (ICM) studied.

SCMFrequency (f)Rp(Ω)Lp(H)Error RpError Lp
SCM 510-2MHz499.9809.85E-40.0032 %1.496 %
SCM 610-2MHz999.9719.70E-40.0031 %1.497 %

3.2 LEBISDI Evaluation with Data Collected from Real Circuit Components

Next, we investigated the performance of LEBISDI with the impedance data generated by the RCM developed with different circuit combinations of real electronic circuit components. Nyquist plots obtained from the real circuit data collected by an impedance analyzer were fitted by LEBISDI (Figure 14) and the impedance parameters were calculated. Figure 14a shows the impedance plots of RCM 1, which is a parallel combination of a 1 kΩ resistor and a 0.1 μF capacitor. Table 3 shows the impedance parameters calculated by LEBISDI for RCM 1 and the error obtained in the fitting. The errors were 0.348 % and 0.01% for resistance and capacitance calculations, respectively (Table 3).

Fig.14
Fig.14

Interpretation of the impedance data obtained from real electronic circuit combinations (RCMs) using LEBISDI. (a) Data interpretation for RCM 1, which was a parallel combination of a 1 kΩ resistor and a 0.1 μF capacitor. (b) Data interpretation for RCM 2, which was a parallel combination of a 2 kΩ resistor and a 0.1 μF capacitor.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Table 3

Comparison of actual impedance data and the data obtained from LEBISDI for RCM 1 containing a 1 kΩ resistor and a 0.1 μF capacitor in parallel.

ValuesResistor (Ω)Capacitor (μF)
Original1000.000.10
Calculated0996.520.10
Error0.348 %0.0885%

Impedance data were also collected from a parallel combination of a 2 kΩ resistor and a 0.1 μF capacitor called RCM 2. Figure 14b shows the impedance plots for RCM 2 and Table 4 presents the impedance parameters calculated by LEBISDI for this circuit. The errors in the fitting process in LEBISDI were 0.335 % and 5.0 % for resistance and capacitance calculations, respectively (Table 4).

Table 4

Comparison of actual impedance data and the data obtained from LEBISDI for RCM 2 containing a 2 kΩ resistor and a 0.1 μF capacitor in parallel.

ValuesResistorCapacitor
Original2000.00 Ω0.10 μF
Calculated1993.27 Ω0.10 μF
Error0.335 %4.993%

3.3 LEBISDI Evaluation with Data Collected from Fruits and Vegetables

Impedance data were also collected from fruits and vegetables. Figure 1517 show the impedance plots of a cucumber, a carrot and a bottle gourd, respectively. Numerical results for these configurations are reported in Table 5. To investigate the effect of boiling on impedance, data were also collected from the fruits and vegetables before and after boiling. Figures 18a and b show the impedance plots of a green banana before and after boiling, respectively. Numerical results for these configurations are reported in Table 6. After boiling, impedance parameters were lower for both series and parallel resistance, likely because boiling destroyed the structure of the cells; the CPE angle was also reduced. We investigated the role of freshness on impedance variation by collecting data from naturally stored vegetables. Impedance was measured daily and the variation over time was analyzed by LEBISDI. Figure 19 shows the impedance plots of a cucumber collected every 3 days for 22 days, and Table 7 shows the impedance parameters calculated by LEBISDI of impedance in a cucumber throughout the 22-day storage period. Over time, the impedance parameters for parallel resistance gradually increased while the impedance parameters for series resistance and parallel capacitance gradually decreased, likely due to dehydration with storage time; the CPE angle also increased slightly with time.

Fig.15
Fig.15

Impedance data fitting and analysis in LEBISDI for a cucumber. (a) Before fitting: data loaded. (b) After fitting: data calculated.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Impedance data fitting and analysis in LEBISDI for a carrot. (a) Before fitting: data loaded. (b) After fitting: data calculated.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Impedance data fitting and analysis in LEBISDI for a bottle gourd. (a) Before fitting: data loaded. (b) After fitting: data calculated.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Analysis of the variation in the impedance data obtained from the impedance parameter in LEBISDI for a green banana (a) before and (b) after boiling.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Impedance plots obtained for a cucumber over a 22-day storage period using a LEBISDI to show the variation in the impedance parameters for naturally stored vegetables: (a) day 1, (b) day 4, (c) day 7, (d) day 10, (e) day 13, (f) day 16, (g) day 19 and (h) day 22.

Citation: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7, 1; 10.5617/jeb.2978

Table 5

Impedance data obtained from LEBISDI for a cucumber, a carrot and a bottle gourd.

ParametersCucumberCarrotBottle Gourd
r19.17 Ω-11.68 Ω57.38 Ω
R1437.05 Ω1838.85 Ω2115.34 Ω
C0.34 μF0.08 μF0.17 μF
XMax-463.13 Ω-583.07 Ω-636.83 Ω
fc4204.70 Hz14427 Hz6086.60 Hz
θCPE19.26°20.16°20.93°
n0.790.780.77
Table 6

Comparison of the impedance parameters obtained from the impedance data estimation in LEBISDI for a green banana before and after boiling.

ParametersUnboiledBoiled
r-354.08 Ω309.04 Ω
R9382.64 Ω150.66 Ω
C0.048 μF0.05 μF
XMax-2412.03 Ω-46.00 Ω
fc6896.98 Hz286206 Hz
θCPE28.26°4.379°
n0.690.959
Table 7

Comparison of impedance parameters calculated from the impedance data estimation in LEBISDI for cucumber sample studied over a 22-day period.

Dayr (Ω)R(Ω)C (μF)XMax (Ω)Fc (Hz)θCPEn
119.171437.050.34-4631324204.7019.26°0.79
412.431660.370.30-529.344204.7019.94°0.78
7-0.261940.840.29-617.503717.0020.27°0.78
10-6.142190.620.26-698.483717.0020.34°0.78
13-14.742289.290.22-723.664204.7020.81°0.77
16-29.272385.080.22-735.054204.7022.09°0.75
19-37.052447.670.21-735.374204.7022.98°0.75
22-45.292698.610.19-819.454204.7022.76°0.75

Discussion

LEBISDI software can be suitably used for analyzing the bioimpedance data for noninvasive biological tissue characterization. The present study is mainly associated with the vegetable tissues though the analysis of human tissue impedance data can be successfully conducted with the proposed software. As a future direction the proposed LEBISDI program can also be applied for human tissue characterization for health analysis and disease diagnosis. LEBISDI can also be potentially applied for multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) based tissue composition assessment, electrical impedance-based tissue characterization and [95, 96] or disease diagnosis [97, 98] and EIS based tissue health characterization in biological, biomedical, medical and clinical applications [99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106].

Conclusions

Under alternating electrical excitation, biological tissues produce a complex bioelectrical impedance that varies over a wide band of frequencies. By identifying the frequency response of a tissue’s electrical impedance, we can identify the equivalent electrical circuit model, which depicts physiological properties of the tissues that can be used later for clinical investigations. We developed a LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) for tissue impedance analysis in medical, biomedical and biological applications by studying the equivalent circuit parameters of biological tissues from their Nyquist plots. The performance of LEBISDI was tested, calibrated and evaluated with simulated impedance data as well as with the impedance data collected from a number of high-precision resistor, capacitor and inductor circuit combinations using a standard impedance analyzer with a low amplitude sinusoidal current signal. To study the practical applicability of LEBISDI, we tested biological tissues with an impedance analyzer and the impedance data were interpreted by LEBISDI; their equivalent circuit parameters were also evaluated. Calibration studies show that LEBISDI accurately interpreted the simulated and practical electronic circuit combination data. Furthermore, experimental results show that LEBISDI successfully interpreted the bioimpedance data and estimated the capacitance and resistance of organic tissues. We also observed that LEBISDI efficiently calculated and analyzed variation in the bioimpedance parameters of different tissue compositions. Simulated data and experimental studies demonstrate that LEBISDI can be used to reveal the equivalent circuit parameters from the impedance data obtained from EIS studies. LEBISDI-based studies with a Warburg impedance element could be conducted and reported in future communications. As a future study, the proposed LEBISDI can also be used for electrical impedance-based human tissue characterization, tissue composition analysis, tissue anatomy and health studies and disease diagnosis.

Acknowledgements

All the authors thank King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia, and the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, India, for providing research facilities required to complete this work.

References

  • 1

    Martinsen OG Grimnes S. Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics second ed. Academic Press 2008.

  • 2

    Ackmann JJ Complex Bioelectric Impedance Measurement System for the Frequency Range from 5 Hz to 1 MHz Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 1993; 21: 135-146. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02367609

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Cheneler D Bowen J Kaklamani G. Transient bioimpedance monitoring of mechanotransduction in artificial tissue during indentation. J Electr Bioimp. 2014; 5(1): 55-73. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.869

  • 4

    Bera TK Seo JK Kwon H and Nagaraju J A LabVIEW Based Electrical Bio-Impedance Spectroscopic Data Interpreter (LEBISDI) for Studying The Equivalent Circuit Parameters of Biological Tissues 15th International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) and 14th Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) Germany 2013 pp 77.

  • 5

    Koziol L Pitre Jr JJ Bull JL Dodde RE Kruger G Vollmer A Weitzel WF. The feasibility of using compression bioimpedance measurements to quantify peripheral edema. J Electr Bioimp. 2014; 5(1): 99-109. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.929

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Bauchot AD Harker FR Arnold WM. The use of electrical impedance spectroscopy to assess the physiological condition of kiwifruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 2000; 18(1): 9–18. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(99)00056-3

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Heymsfield S Zheng J Wang M Gao C Kim JYH Choi A ... & Kim I. Evaluation of Novel Hand-held Wireless Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) Body Composition Devices. The FASEB Journal. 2015;29(1 Supplement):747-2.

  • 8

    Azevedo ERFBM Alonso KC Cliquet Jr A. Body composition assessment by bioelectrical impedance analysis and body mass index in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. J Electr Bioimp. 2016; 7(1): 2-5. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.2421

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Bera TK. Bioelectrical impedance methods for noninvasive health monitoring: a review. Journal of Medical Engineering 2014. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/381251

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Kahraman A Hilsenbeck J Nyga M Ertle J Wree A Plauth M Gerken G Canbay AE. Bioelectrical impedance analysis in clinical practice: implications for hepatitis C therapy BIA and hepatitis C Virology Journal. 2010; 7: 191. dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-7-191

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Orazem ME Tribollet B. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Wiley-Inter Sc. 2008. dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470381588

  • 12

    Macdonald RJ. Impedance Spectroscopy. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 1992; 20: 289-305. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02368532

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Bera TK and Nagaraju J. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic Study of Broiler Chicken Tissues Suitable for The Development of Practical Phantoms in Multifrequency EIT J Electr Bioimp. 2011; 1: 48–63. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.174

  • 14

    Chakraborty S Das C Saha R Das A Bera NK Chattopadhyay D. Karmakar A Chattopadhyay D Chattopadhyay S. Investigating the quasi-oscillatory behavior of electrical parameters with the concentration of D-glucose in its aqueous solution at room temperature by employing impedance spectroscopy technique. J Electr Bioimp. 2015; 6(1): 10-17. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.2363

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Sammer M Laarhoven B Mejias E Yntema D Fuchs EC Holler G Brasseur G Lankmayr E. Biomass measurement of living Lumbriculus variegatus with impedance spectroscopy. J Electr Bioimp. 2014; 5(1): 92-98. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.934

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Ruiz GA Zamora ML Felice CJ. Impedance spectroscopy of yeast cells attached to gold electrodes. J Electr Bioimp. 2014; 5(1): 40-47. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.809

  • 17

    Birgersson UH Birgersson E Ollmar S. Estimating electrical properties and the thickness of skin with electrical impedance spectroscopy: Mathematical analysis and measurements. J Electr Bioimp. 2012; 3(1): 51-60. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.400

  • 18

    Röthlingshöfer L Ulbrich M Hahne S Leonhardt S. Monitoring change of body fluid during physical exercise using bioimpedance spectroscopy and finite element simulations. J Electr Bioimp. 2011; 2(1): 79-85. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.178

  • 19

    Repo T Paine DH Taylor AG. Electrical impedance spectroscopy in relation to seed viability and moisture content in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seed Science Research. 2002; 12: 17-29. dx.doi.org/10.1079/SSR200194

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Chowdhury A Kanti Bera T Ghoshal D Chakraborty B. Electrical Impedance Variations in Banana Ripening: An Analytical Study with Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2016 (in press). dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12387

  • 21

    Barsoukov E Macdonald JR. Impedance Spectroscopy: Theory Experiment and Applications. Wiley-Inter Sc.; 2 Ed. 2005.

  • 22

    Gomez-Clapers J Casanella R Pallas-Areny R. A novel method to obtain proximal plethysmographic information from distal measurements using the impedance plethysmogram. J Electr Bioimp. 2015; 6(1): 44-48. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.2575

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Nyboer J Kreider MM Hannapel L. Electrical Impedance Plethysmography - A Physical and Physiologic Approach to Peripheral Vascular Study. Circulation. 1950; 2: 811-821. dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.2.6.811

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Griffths RW Philpot ME Chapman BJ Munday KA. Impedance cardiography: non-invasive cardiac output measurement after burn injury. Int. J. Tissue React. 1981; 3(1): 47-55.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    van Eijnatten MA van Rijssel MJ Peters RJ Verdaasdonk RM Meijer JH. Comparison of cardiac time intervals between echocardiography and impedance cardiography at various heart rates. J Electr Bioimp. 2014; 5(1): 2-8. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.690

  • 26

    Woltjer HH Bogaard HJ de Vries PMJM. The technique of impedance cardiography. European Heart Journal. 1997; 18: 1396-1403. dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.eurheartj.a015464

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Da Silva JE De Sá JM Jossinet J. Classification of breast tissue by electrical impedance spectroscopy. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. 2000; 38(1): 26-30. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02344684

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Kerner TE Paulsen KD Hartov A Soho SK Poplack SP. Electrical impedance spectroscopy of the breast: clinical imaging results in 26 subjects. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. 2002; 21(6): 638-645. dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2002.800606

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Laufer S Ivorra A Reuter VE Rubinsky B Solomon SB. Electrical impedance characterization of normal and cancerous human hepatic tissue. Physiological measurement. 2010; 31(7): 995. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/31/7/009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Halter RJ Schned A Heaney J Hartov A Schutz S Paulsen KD. Electrical impedance spectroscopy of benign and malignant prostatic tissues. The Journal of urology. 2008; 179(4): 1580-1586. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2007.11.043

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Bonmassar G Iwaki S Goldmakher G Angelone LM Belliveau JW Lev MH. On the measurement of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the human head. Int. J. Bioelectromagn. 2010; 12(1): 32.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Sanchez B Vandersteen G Martin I Castillo D Torrego A Riu PJ Schoukens J Bragos R. In vivo electrical bioimpedance characterization of human lung tissue during the bronchoscopy procedure. A feasibility study. Med. Eng. Phys. 2013; 35(7): 949-957. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2012.09.004

  • 33

    Zheng B Tublin ME Klym AH Gur D. Classification of Thyroid Nodules Using a Resonance-Frequency–Based Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy: A Preliminary Assessment. Thyroid. 2013; 23(7): 854-862. dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2012.0413

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Kyle AH Chan CT Minchinton AI. Characterization of three-dimensional tissue cultures using electrical impedance spectroscopy. Biophysical journal. 1999; 76(5): 2640-2648. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(99)77416-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Yang L. Electrical impedance spectroscopy for detection of bacterial cells in suspensions using interdigitated microelectrodes. Talanta. 2008; 74(5): 1621-1629. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2007.10.018

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    K'Owino IO Sadik OA. Impedance spectroscopy: a powerful tool for rapid biomolecular screening and cell culture monitoring. Electroanalysis. 2005; 17(23): 2101-2113. dx.doi.org/10.1002/elan.200503371

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Schwan HP. Electrical properties of tissues and cell suspensions: mechanisms and models. Proceedings of 16th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 1994; 1: A70-A71. dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.1994.412155

  • 38

    Martinsen ØG Grimnes S Schwan HP Interface Phenomena and Dielectric Properties of Biological Tissue. Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science. 2002. 2643-2653.

  • 39

    Schwan HP Electrical Properties of Tissue and Cell Suspensions. In Advances in Biological and Medical Physics Lawrence J.H. Tobias C.A. Eds.; Acad. Press: New York. 1957; V: 147-209. dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-4832-3111-2.50008-0

  • 40

    Seo JK Bera TK Kwon H Sadleir R. Effective admittivity of biological tissues as a coefficient of elliptic PDE. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. 2013; Article ID 353849 10 pages. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/353849

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Miklavcic D Pavselj N Hart FX. Electric Properties of Tissues Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2006. 1-12.

  • 42

    Lewis Jr GK Lewis Sr GK Olbricht W. Cost-effective broad-band electrical impedance spectroscopy measurement circuit and signal analysis for piezo-materials and ultrasound transducers. Measurement Science and Technology. 2008; 19(10): 105102. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/19/10/105102

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 43

    Seoane F. Ferreira J Sanchéz JJ Bragós R. An analog front-end enables electrical impedance spectroscopy system on-chip for biomedical applications. Physiological Measurement. 2008; 29(6): S267. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/29/6/S23

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    Schröder J Doerner S Schneider T Hauptmann P. Analogue and digital sensor interfaces for impedance spectroscopy. Measurement Science and Technology. 2004; 15(7): 1271. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/15/7/007

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Zhao YQ Demosthenous A Bayford RH. A CMOS instrumentation amplifier for wideband bioimpedance spectroscopy systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2006. ISCAS 2006 4 pages.

  • 46

    Masot R Alca-iz M Fuentes A Schmidt FC Barat JM Gil L Baigts D Martinez-Ma-es R Soto J. Design of a low-cost non-destructive system for punctual measurements of salt levels in food products using impedance spectroscopy. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2010; 158(2): 217-223. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2010.01.010

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    Chintan M. Bhatt Nagaraju J. Instrumentation to Estimate the Moisture Content in Bread Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. Sensors & Transducers Journal. 2008; 97(10): 45-54.

  • 48

    Chowdhury A Nizamudheen VK Bera TK Ghoshal D Chakraborty B. A study on the Impedance variation in Banana during Ripening using AD5933 based Impedance spectrometer with LabVIEW. Proceeding of the IEEE ICSSS-2016 India.

  • 49

    Hoja J Lentka G. Interface circuit for impedance sensors using two specialized single-chip microsystems. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 2010; 163(1): 191-197. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2010.08.002

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 50

    Margo C Katrib J Nadi M Rouane A. A four-electrode low frequency impedance spectroscopy measurement system using the AD5933 measurement chip. Physiological Measurement. 2013; 34(4): 391. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/34/4/391

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 51

    Travis J Kring J. LabVIEW for Everyone: Graphical Programming Made Easy and Fun 3 Ed. PHI.

  • 52

    Sugihara H Oka H Shimono K Ogawa R Taketani M.. U.S. Patent No. RE37977. Washington DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 2003.

  • 53

    Maxwell JC. A Treatise on Electricity & Magnetism vol. 1 London Oxford Univ. Press. 1892 Chap. 10.

  • 54

    Martinsen ØG Grimnes S Schwan HP. Biological Tissues: Interfacial and Dielectric Properties Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science Volume 2 Ed Somasundaran P. (2006). CRC press.

  • 55

    Franks W Schenker I Schmutz P Hierlemann A. Impedance Characterization and Modeling of Electrodes for Biomedical Applications IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 2005; 52(7): 12951302. dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2005.847523

  • 56

    Tränkler HR Kanoun O Min M Rist M. Smart sensor systems using impedance spectroscopy. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Eng. 2007; 13(4): 455–478.

  • 57

    Lasia A. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Its Applications Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry B. E. Conway J. Bockris and R.E. White Edts. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Pub. NY 1999 Vol. 32 p. 143-248.

  • 58

    Schiffbauer J Park S Yossifon G. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy of Microchannel-Nanochannel Interface Devices. Phys. Rev. Letters. 2013; 110: 204504. dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.204504

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 59

    Song J Bazant MZ. Effects of Nanoparticle Geometry and Size Distribution on Diffusion Impedance of Battery Electrodes. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2013; 160(1): A15-A24. dx.doi.org/10.1149/2.023301jes

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 60

    Qiao G Hong Y Ou J Guan X. Corrosion monitoring of the RC structures in time domain: Part II. Recognition algorithm based on fractional derivative theory. Measurement. 2015; 67: 84–91. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2014.12.048

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 61

    Bisquert J Garcia-Belmonte G Fabregat-Santiago F Roberto Bueno P. Theoretical models for AC impedance of finite diffusion layers exhibiting low frequency dispersion. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. 1999; 475: 152–163. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0728(99)00346-0

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    Wessels JGH (1996) Fungal hydrophobins: proteins that function at an interface. Trends in Plant Science. 1996; 1: 9-15. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(96)80017-3

  • 63

    Mouritsen OG Bloom M. Models of Lipid-Protein Interactions in Membranes. Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure. 1993; 22: 145-171. dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bb.22.060193.001045

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 64

    Cole KS. Electric phase angle of cell membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 1932; 15: 641-649. dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.15.6.641

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 65

    Kyle UG Bosaeus I De Lorenzo AD Deurenberg P Elia M G!omez JM Heitmann BL Kent-Smith L Melchior JC Pirlich M Scharfetter H Schols AMWJ Pichard C. Bioelectrical impedance analysis - part I: review of principles and methods. Clinical Nutrition. 2004; 23: 1226–1243. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2004.06.004

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 66

    Damez JL Clerjon S Abouelkaram S Lepetit J. Dielectric behavior of beef meat in the 1–1500 kHz range: Simulation with the Fricke/Cole–Cole model. Meat Science. 2007; 77: 512–519. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.04.028

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    Garcıa-Alonso MC Saldana L Alonso C Barranco V Munoz-Morris MA Escudero ML. In situ cell culture monitoring on a Ti–6Al–4V surface by electrochemical techniques. Acta Biomaterialia. 2009; 5: 1374–1384. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2008.11.020

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    Pliquett U Altmann M Pliquett F Schoberlein L. Py – a parameter for meat quality. Meat Science. 2003; 65: 1429–37. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(03)00066-4

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    Fernández-Segovia I Fuentes A Ali-o M Masot R Alca-iz M Barat JM. Detection of frozen-thawed salmon (Salmo salar) by a rapid low-cost method. Journal of Food Engineering. 2012; 113: 210–216. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.06.003

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 70

    Valero A Braschler T Renaud P. A unified approach to dielectric single cell analysis: Impedance and dielectrophoretic force spectroscopy. Lab on a Chip. 2010;10(17): 2216-2225. dx.doi.org/10.1039/c003982a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    Wilson EB. The structure of protoplasm. Science. 1899; 10: 33–45. dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.10.237.33

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 72

    Luby-Phelps K. The physical chemistry of cytoplasm and its influence on cell function: an update. Mol. Biol. Cell. 2013; 24(17): 2593-6. dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E12-08-0617

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    Zhang MIN Stout DG Willison JHM. Plant Tissue Impedance and Cold Acclimation: A Re-analysis. Journal of Experimental Botany. 1992; 43(247): 263-266. dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/43.2.263

  • 74

    Zhang MIN Willison JHM. Electrical Impedance Analysis in Plant Tissues: Impedance Measurement in Leaves. Journal of Experimental Botany 1993; 44(265): 1369-1375. dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/44.8.1369

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 75

    Buendia R Gil-Pita R Seoane F. Cole parameter estimation from the modulus of the electrical bioimpeadance for assessment of body composition. A full spectroscopy approach. J Electr. Bioimp. 2011; 2; 72-78. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.197

  • 76

    Fricke H Morse S. The electric resistance and capacity of blood for frequencies between 800 and 4 ½ million cycles. J. General Physiol. 1925; 9(2): 153–167. dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.9.2.153

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 77

    Cole KS Cole RH. Dispersion and absorption in dielectrics I. Alternating current characteristics. Journal of Chemical Physics. 1941; 9(4); 341-351. dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1750906

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 78

    Kuang W Nelson SO. Low-Frequency Dielectric Properties of Biological Tissues: A Review with Some New Insights. Transactions of the ASAE. 1998; 41(1); 173. dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.17142

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    Gabriel C Gabriel S Courhout E. The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey. Phys Med Biol. 1996; 41(11): 2231-2249. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/001

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    Powles JG. Cole-Cole plots as they should be. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 1993; 56: 35-47. dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-7322(93)80017-P

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 81

    Bera TK Nagaraju J Lubineau G. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Based Evaluation of Biological Tissues Phantoms to Study the Multifrequency Electrical Impedance Tomography (Mf-EIT) Systems. Journal of Visualization. 2016; 19(4): 691–713. dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12650-016-0351-0

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 82

    Han L Koide N Chiba Y Mitate T. Modeling of an equivalent circuit for dye-sensitized solar cells. Applied Physics Letters. 2004; 84(13): 2433-2435. dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1690495

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 83

    Kun S Ristic B Peura RA Dunn RM. Real-time extraction of tissue impedance model parameters for electrical impedance spectrometer. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. 1999; 37(4): 428-432. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02513325

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 84

    Mellert F Winkler K Schneider C Dudykevych T Welz A Osypka M Gersing E Preusse CJ. Detection of (Reversible) Myocardial Ischemic Injury by Means of Electrical Bioimpedance IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 2011; 58(6): 1511-1518. dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2010.2054090

  • 85

    Casas O Bragos R Riu PJ Rosell J Tresanchez M Warren M Rodriguez-Sinovas A Carre-o A Cinca J. In vivo and in situ ischemic tissue characterization using electrical impedance spectroscopy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1999; 873(1): 51-58. dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb09448.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    Rigaud B Hamzaoui L Frikha MR Chauveau N Morucci JP. In vitro tissue characterization and modelling using electrical impedance measurements in the 100 Hz-10 MHz frequency range. Physiological Measurement. 1995; 16(3A): A15. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/16/3A/002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 87

    Han A Yang L Frazier AB. Quantification of the heterogeneity in breast cancer cell lines using whole-cell impedance spectroscopy. Clinical Cancer Research. 2007; 3(1): 139-143. dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1346

  • 88

    Instruction Manual 7600 Precision LCR Meter Model B QuadTech Inc. 5 Clock Tower Place 210 East Maynard Massachusetts U.S.A. 01754-2530 October 2002.

  • 89

    Chang Z Pop GAM Meijer GCM. A Comparison of Two-and Four-Electrode Techniques to Characterize Blood Impedance for the Frequency Range of 100 Hz to 100 MHz IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 2008; 55(3): 1247-1249. dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2008.915725

  • 90

    Bera TK Mohamadou Y Lee KH Wi H Oh TI Eung EJ Soleimani M Seo JK. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Electro-mechanical Characterization of Conductive Fabrics. Sensors. 2014; 14: 9738-9754. dx.doi.org/10.3390/s140609738

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    Yúfera A Rueda A. A Method for Bioimpedance Measure With Four- and Two-Electrode Sensor Systems 30th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference Vancouver British Columbia Canada August 20-24 2008 pp 2318-2321. dx.doi.org/10.1109/iembs.2008.4649662

  • 92

    Bera TK and Nagaraju J. A MATLAB-Based Boundary Data Simulator for Studying the Resistivity Reconstruction Using Neighbouring Current Pattern. Journal of Medical Engineering. 2013; Article ID 193578; 15 pages. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/193578

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 93

    Clemente F Romano M Bifulco P Cesarelli M. EIS measurements for characterization of muscular tissue by means of equivalent electrical parameter. Measurement. 2014; 58: 476-482. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2014.09.013

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    Clemente F Arpaia P Manna C. Characterization of human skin impedance after electrical treatment for transdermal drug delivery. Measurement. 2013; 46(9): 3494-3501. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2013.06.033

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    Mishra V Bouyad H Halter RJ. Electrical impedance-based biopsy for prostate cancer detection. In Bioengineering Conference (NEBEC) 2011 IEEE 37th Annual Northeast pp. 1-2 IEEE. dx.doi.org/10.1109/nebc.2011.5778712

  • 96

    Chao PJ Huang EY Cheng KS Huang YJ. Electrical impedance spectroscopy as electrical biopsy for monitoring radiation sequelae of intestine in rats. BioMed Research International. 2013; Article ID 974614 7 pages. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/974614

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 97

    Keshtkar A. Salehnia Z. Keshtkar A. & Shokouhi B. Bladder cancer detection using electrical impedance technique (tabriz mark 1). Pathology research international 2012; Article ID 470101 5 pages. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/470101

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    Hope TA Iles SE. Technology review: the use of electrical impedance scanning in the detection of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research. 2004; 6(2): 69-74. dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr744

  • 99

    Yang L Bashir R. Electrical/electrochemical impedance for rapid detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Biotechnology Advances. 2008; 26(2): 135-150. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2007.10.003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 100

    Yang L Li Y Griffis CL Johnson MG. Interdigitated microelectrode (IME) impedance sensor for the detection of viable Salmonella typhimurium. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2004; 19(10): 1139-1147. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2003.10.009

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 101

    Cai D Ren L Zhao H et al. A molecular-imprint nanosensor for ultrasensitive detection of proteins. Nature Nanotechnology. 2010; 5(8): 597-601. dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2010.114

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    Pan S Rothberg L. Chemical control of electrode functionalization for detection of DNA hybridization by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Langmuir. 2005; 21(3): 1022-1027. dx.doi.org/10.1021/la048083a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    Ollmar S Emtestam L. Electrical impedance applied to non‐invasive detection of irritation in skin. Contact Dermatitis. 1992; 27(1): 37-42. dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1992.tb05195.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 104

    Longbottom C Huysmans MCD Pitts NB Los P Bruce PG. Detection of dental decay and its extent using AC impedance spectroscopy. Nature Medicine. 1996; 2(2) 235-237. dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm0296-235

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 105

    Tidy JA Brown BH Healey TJ Daayana S Martin M Prendiville W Kitchener HC. Accuracy of detection of high‐grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using electrical impedance spectroscopy with colposcopy. International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2013; 120(4): 400-411. dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12096

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 106

    Keshtkar A Keshtkar A Smallwood RH. Electrical impedance spectroscopy and the diagnosis of bladder pathology. Physiological Measurement. 2006; 27(7): 585. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/27/7/003

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1

    Martinsen OG Grimnes S. Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics second ed. Academic Press 2008.

  • 2

    Ackmann JJ Complex Bioelectric Impedance Measurement System for the Frequency Range from 5 Hz to 1 MHz Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 1993; 21: 135-146. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02367609

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Cheneler D Bowen J Kaklamani G. Transient bioimpedance monitoring of mechanotransduction in artificial tissue during indentation. J Electr Bioimp. 2014; 5(1): 55-73. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.869

  • 4

    Bera TK Seo JK Kwon H and Nagaraju J A LabVIEW Based Electrical Bio-Impedance Spectroscopic Data Interpreter (LEBISDI) for Studying The Equivalent Circuit Parameters of Biological Tissues 15th International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) and 14th Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) Germany 2013 pp 77.

  • 5

    Koziol L Pitre Jr JJ Bull JL Dodde RE Kruger G Vollmer A Weitzel WF. The feasibility of using compression bioimpedance measurements to quantify peripheral edema. J Electr Bioimp. 2014; 5(1): 99-109. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.929

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Bauchot AD Harker FR Arnold WM. The use of electrical impedance spectroscopy to assess the physiological condition of kiwifruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 2000; 18(1): 9–18. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(99)00056-3

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Heymsfield S Zheng J Wang M Gao C Kim JYH Choi A ... & Kim I. Evaluation of Novel Hand-held Wireless Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) Body Composition Devices. The FASEB Journal. 2015;29(1 Supplement):747-2.

  • 8

    Azevedo ERFBM Alonso KC Cliquet Jr A. Body composition assessment by bioelectrical impedance analysis and body mass index in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. J Electr Bioimp. 2016; 7(1): 2-5. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.2421

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Bera TK. Bioelectrical impedance methods for noninvasive health monitoring: a review. Journal of Medical Engineering 2014. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/381251

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Kahraman A Hilsenbeck J Nyga M Ertle J Wree A Plauth M Gerken G Canbay AE. Bioelectrical impedance analysis in clinical practice: implications for hepatitis C therapy BIA and hepatitis C Virology Journal. 2010; 7: 191. dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-7-191

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Orazem ME Tribollet B. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Wiley-Inter Sc. 2008. dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470381588

  • 12

    Macdonald RJ. Impedance Spectroscopy. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 1992; 20: 289-305. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02368532

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Bera TK and Nagaraju J. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic Study of Broiler Chicken Tissues Suitable for The Development of Practical Phantoms in Multifrequency EIT J Electr Bioimp. 2011; 1: 48–63. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.174

  • 14

    Chakraborty S Das C Saha R Das A Bera NK Chattopadhyay D. Karmakar A Chattopadhyay D Chattopadhyay S. Investigating the quasi-oscillatory behavior of electrical parameters with the concentration of D-glucose in its aqueous solution at room temperature by employing impedance spectroscopy technique. J Electr Bioimp. 2015; 6(1): 10-17. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.2363

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Sammer M Laarhoven B Mejias E Yntema D Fuchs EC Holler G Brasseur G Lankmayr E. Biomass measurement of living Lumbriculus variegatus with impedance spectroscopy. J Electr Bioimp. 2014; 5(1): 92-98. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.934

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Ruiz GA Zamora ML Felice CJ. Impedance spectroscopy of yeast cells attached to gold electrodes. J Electr Bioimp. 2014; 5(1): 40-47. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.809

  • 17

    Birgersson UH Birgersson E Ollmar S. Estimating electrical properties and the thickness of skin with electrical impedance spectroscopy: Mathematical analysis and measurements. J Electr Bioimp. 2012; 3(1): 51-60. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.400

  • 18

    Röthlingshöfer L Ulbrich M Hahne S Leonhardt S. Monitoring change of body fluid during physical exercise using bioimpedance spectroscopy and finite element simulations. J Electr Bioimp. 2011; 2(1): 79-85. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.178

  • 19

    Repo T Paine DH Taylor AG. Electrical impedance spectroscopy in relation to seed viability and moisture content in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seed Science Research. 2002; 12: 17-29. dx.doi.org/10.1079/SSR200194

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Chowdhury A Kanti Bera T Ghoshal D Chakraborty B. Electrical Impedance Variations in Banana Ripening: An Analytical Study with Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2016 (in press). dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12387

  • 21

    Barsoukov E Macdonald JR. Impedance Spectroscopy: Theory Experiment and Applications. Wiley-Inter Sc.; 2 Ed. 2005.

  • 22

    Gomez-Clapers J Casanella R Pallas-Areny R. A novel method to obtain proximal plethysmographic information from distal measurements using the impedance plethysmogram. J Electr Bioimp. 2015; 6(1): 44-48. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.2575

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Nyboer J Kreider MM Hannapel L. Electrical Impedance Plethysmography - A Physical and Physiologic Approach to Peripheral Vascular Study. Circulation. 1950; 2: 811-821. dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.2.6.811

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Griffths RW Philpot ME Chapman BJ Munday KA. Impedance cardiography: non-invasive cardiac output measurement after burn injury. Int. J. Tissue React. 1981; 3(1): 47-55.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    van Eijnatten MA van Rijssel MJ Peters RJ Verdaasdonk RM Meijer JH. Comparison of cardiac time intervals between echocardiography and impedance cardiography at various heart rates. J Electr Bioimp. 2014; 5(1): 2-8. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.690

  • 26

    Woltjer HH Bogaard HJ de Vries PMJM. The technique of impedance cardiography. European Heart Journal. 1997; 18: 1396-1403. dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.eurheartj.a015464

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Da Silva JE De Sá JM Jossinet J. Classification of breast tissue by electrical impedance spectroscopy. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. 2000; 38(1): 26-30. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02344684

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Kerner TE Paulsen KD Hartov A Soho SK Poplack SP. Electrical impedance spectroscopy of the breast: clinical imaging results in 26 subjects. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. 2002; 21(6): 638-645. dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2002.800606

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Laufer S Ivorra A Reuter VE Rubinsky B Solomon SB. Electrical impedance characterization of normal and cancerous human hepatic tissue. Physiological measurement. 2010; 31(7): 995. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/31/7/009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Halter RJ Schned A Heaney J Hartov A Schutz S Paulsen KD. Electrical impedance spectroscopy of benign and malignant prostatic tissues. The Journal of urology. 2008; 179(4): 1580-1586. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2007.11.043

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Bonmassar G Iwaki S Goldmakher G Angelone LM Belliveau JW Lev MH. On the measurement of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the human head. Int. J. Bioelectromagn. 2010; 12(1): 32.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Sanchez B Vandersteen G Martin I Castillo D Torrego A Riu PJ Schoukens J Bragos R. In vivo electrical bioimpedance characterization of human lung tissue during the bronchoscopy procedure. A feasibility study. Med. Eng. Phys. 2013; 35(7): 949-957. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2012.09.004

  • 33

    Zheng B Tublin ME Klym AH Gur D. Classification of Thyroid Nodules Using a Resonance-Frequency–Based Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy: A Preliminary Assessment. Thyroid. 2013; 23(7): 854-862. dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2012.0413

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Kyle AH Chan CT Minchinton AI. Characterization of three-dimensional tissue cultures using electrical impedance spectroscopy. Biophysical journal. 1999; 76(5): 2640-2648. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(99)77416-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Yang L. Electrical impedance spectroscopy for detection of bacterial cells in suspensions using interdigitated microelectrodes. Talanta. 2008; 74(5): 1621-1629. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2007.10.018

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    K'Owino IO Sadik OA. Impedance spectroscopy: a powerful tool for rapid biomolecular screening and cell culture monitoring. Electroanalysis. 2005; 17(23): 2101-2113. dx.doi.org/10.1002/elan.200503371

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Schwan HP. Electrical properties of tissues and cell suspensions: mechanisms and models. Proceedings of 16th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 1994; 1: A70-A71. dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.1994.412155

  • 38

    Martinsen ØG Grimnes S Schwan HP Interface Phenomena and Dielectric Properties of Biological Tissue. Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science. 2002. 2643-2653.

  • 39

    Schwan HP Electrical Properties of Tissue and Cell Suspensions. In Advances in Biological and Medical Physics Lawrence J.H. Tobias C.A. Eds.; Acad. Press: New York. 1957; V: 147-209. dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-4832-3111-2.50008-0

  • 40

    Seo JK Bera TK Kwon H Sadleir R. Effective admittivity of biological tissues as a coefficient of elliptic PDE. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. 2013; Article ID 353849 10 pages. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/353849

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Miklavcic D Pavselj N Hart FX. Electric Properties of Tissues Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2006. 1-12.

  • 42

    Lewis Jr GK Lewis Sr GK Olbricht W. Cost-effective broad-band electrical impedance spectroscopy measurement circuit and signal analysis for piezo-materials and ultrasound transducers. Measurement Science and Technology. 2008; 19(10): 105102. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/19/10/105102

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 43

    Seoane F. Ferreira J Sanchéz JJ Bragós R. An analog front-end enables electrical impedance spectroscopy system on-chip for biomedical applications. Physiological Measurement. 2008; 29(6): S267. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/29/6/S23

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    Schröder J Doerner S Schneider T Hauptmann P. Analogue and digital sensor interfaces for impedance spectroscopy. Measurement Science and Technology. 2004; 15(7): 1271. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/15/7/007

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Zhao YQ Demosthenous A Bayford RH. A CMOS instrumentation amplifier for wideband bioimpedance spectroscopy systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2006. ISCAS 2006 4 pages.

  • 46

    Masot R Alca-iz M Fuentes A Schmidt FC Barat JM Gil L Baigts D Martinez-Ma-es R Soto J. Design of a low-cost non-destructive system for punctual measurements of salt levels in food products using impedance spectroscopy. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2010; 158(2): 217-223. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2010.01.010

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    Chintan M. Bhatt Nagaraju J. Instrumentation to Estimate the Moisture Content in Bread Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. Sensors & Transducers Journal. 2008; 97(10): 45-54.

  • 48

    Chowdhury A Nizamudheen VK Bera TK Ghoshal D Chakraborty B. A study on the Impedance variation in Banana during Ripening using AD5933 based Impedance spectrometer with LabVIEW. Proceeding of the IEEE ICSSS-2016 India.

  • 49

    Hoja J Lentka G. Interface circuit for impedance sensors using two specialized single-chip microsystems. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 2010; 163(1): 191-197. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2010.08.002

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 50

    Margo C Katrib J Nadi M Rouane A. A four-electrode low frequency impedance spectroscopy measurement system using the AD5933 measurement chip. Physiological Measurement. 2013; 34(4): 391. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/34/4/391

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 51

    Travis J Kring J. LabVIEW for Everyone: Graphical Programming Made Easy and Fun 3 Ed. PHI.

  • 52

    Sugihara H Oka H Shimono K Ogawa R Taketani M.. U.S. Patent No. RE37977. Washington DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 2003.

  • 53

    Maxwell JC. A Treatise on Electricity & Magnetism vol. 1 London Oxford Univ. Press. 1892 Chap. 10.

  • 54

    Martinsen ØG Grimnes S Schwan HP. Biological Tissues: Interfacial and Dielectric Properties Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science Volume 2 Ed Somasundaran P. (2006). CRC press.

  • 55

    Franks W Schenker I Schmutz P Hierlemann A. Impedance Characterization and Modeling of Electrodes for Biomedical Applications IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 2005; 52(7): 12951302. dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2005.847523

  • 56

    Tränkler HR Kanoun O Min M Rist M. Smart sensor systems using impedance spectroscopy. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Eng. 2007; 13(4): 455–478.

  • 57

    Lasia A. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Its Applications Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry B. E. Conway J. Bockris and R.E. White Edts. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Pub. NY 1999 Vol. 32 p. 143-248.

  • 58

    Schiffbauer J Park S Yossifon G. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy of Microchannel-Nanochannel Interface Devices. Phys. Rev. Letters. 2013; 110: 204504. dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.204504

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 59

    Song J Bazant MZ. Effects of Nanoparticle Geometry and Size Distribution on Diffusion Impedance of Battery Electrodes. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2013; 160(1): A15-A24. dx.doi.org/10.1149/2.023301jes

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 60

    Qiao G Hong Y Ou J Guan X. Corrosion monitoring of the RC structures in time domain: Part II. Recognition algorithm based on fractional derivative theory. Measurement. 2015; 67: 84–91. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2014.12.048

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 61

    Bisquert J Garcia-Belmonte G Fabregat-Santiago F Roberto Bueno P. Theoretical models for AC impedance of finite diffusion layers exhibiting low frequency dispersion. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. 1999; 475: 152–163. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0728(99)00346-0

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    Wessels JGH (1996) Fungal hydrophobins: proteins that function at an interface. Trends in Plant Science. 1996; 1: 9-15. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(96)80017-3

  • 63

    Mouritsen OG Bloom M. Models of Lipid-Protein Interactions in Membranes. Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure. 1993; 22: 145-171. dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bb.22.060193.001045

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 64

    Cole KS. Electric phase angle of cell membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 1932; 15: 641-649. dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.15.6.641

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 65

    Kyle UG Bosaeus I De Lorenzo AD Deurenberg P Elia M G!omez JM Heitmann BL Kent-Smith L Melchior JC Pirlich M Scharfetter H Schols AMWJ Pichard C. Bioelectrical impedance analysis - part I: review of principles and methods. Clinical Nutrition. 2004; 23: 1226–1243. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2004.06.004

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 66

    Damez JL Clerjon S Abouelkaram S Lepetit J. Dielectric behavior of beef meat in the 1–1500 kHz range: Simulation with the Fricke/Cole–Cole model. Meat Science. 2007; 77: 512–519. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.04.028

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    Garcıa-Alonso MC Saldana L Alonso C Barranco V Munoz-Morris MA Escudero ML. In situ cell culture monitoring on a Ti–6Al–4V surface by electrochemical techniques. Acta Biomaterialia. 2009; 5: 1374–1384. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2008.11.020

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    Pliquett U Altmann M Pliquett F Schoberlein L. Py – a parameter for meat quality. Meat Science. 2003; 65: 1429–37. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(03)00066-4

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    Fernández-Segovia I Fuentes A Ali-o M Masot R Alca-iz M Barat JM. Detection of frozen-thawed salmon (Salmo salar) by a rapid low-cost method. Journal of Food Engineering. 2012; 113: 210–216. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.06.003

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 70

    Valero A Braschler T Renaud P. A unified approach to dielectric single cell analysis: Impedance and dielectrophoretic force spectroscopy. Lab on a Chip. 2010;10(17): 2216-2225. dx.doi.org/10.1039/c003982a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    Wilson EB. The structure of protoplasm. Science. 1899; 10: 33–45. dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.10.237.33

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 72

    Luby-Phelps K. The physical chemistry of cytoplasm and its influence on cell function: an update. Mol. Biol. Cell. 2013; 24(17): 2593-6. dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E12-08-0617

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    Zhang MIN Stout DG Willison JHM. Plant Tissue Impedance and Cold Acclimation: A Re-analysis. Journal of Experimental Botany. 1992; 43(247): 263-266. dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/43.2.263

  • 74

    Zhang MIN Willison JHM. Electrical Impedance Analysis in Plant Tissues: Impedance Measurement in Leaves. Journal of Experimental Botany 1993; 44(265): 1369-1375. dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/44.8.1369

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 75

    Buendia R Gil-Pita R Seoane F. Cole parameter estimation from the modulus of the electrical bioimpeadance for assessment of body composition. A full spectroscopy approach. J Electr. Bioimp. 2011; 2; 72-78. dx.doi.org/10.5617/joeb.197

  • 76

    Fricke H Morse S. The electric resistance and capacity of blood for frequencies between 800 and 4 ½ million cycles. J. General Physiol. 1925; 9(2): 153–167. dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.9.2.153

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 77

    Cole KS Cole RH. Dispersion and absorption in dielectrics I. Alternating current characteristics. Journal of Chemical Physics. 1941; 9(4); 341-351. dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1750906

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 78

    Kuang W Nelson SO. Low-Frequency Dielectric Properties of Biological Tissues: A Review with Some New Insights. Transactions of the ASAE. 1998; 41(1); 173. dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.17142

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    Gabriel C Gabriel S Courhout E. The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey. Phys Med Biol. 1996; 41(11): 2231-2249. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/001

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    Powles JG. Cole-Cole plots as they should be. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 1993; 56: 35-47. dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-7322(93)80017-P

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 81

    Bera TK Nagaraju J Lubineau G. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Based Evaluation of Biological Tissues Phantoms to Study the Multifrequency Electrical Impedance Tomography (Mf-EIT) Systems. Journal of Visualization. 2016; 19(4): 691–713. dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12650-016-0351-0

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 82

    Han L Koide N Chiba Y Mitate T. Modeling of an equivalent circuit for dye-sensitized solar cells. Applied Physics Letters. 2004; 84(13): 2433-2435. dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1690495

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 83

    Kun S Ristic B Peura RA Dunn RM. Real-time extraction of tissue impedance model parameters for electrical impedance spectrometer. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. 1999; 37(4): 428-432. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02513325

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 84

    Mellert F Winkler K Schneider C Dudykevych T Welz A Osypka M Gersing E Preusse CJ. Detection of (Reversible) Myocardial Ischemic Injury by Means of Electrical Bioimpedance IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 2011; 58(6): 1511-1518. dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2010.2054090

  • 85

    Casas O Bragos R Riu PJ Rosell J Tresanchez M Warren M Rodriguez-Sinovas A Carre-o A Cinca J. In vivo and in situ ischemic tissue characterization using electrical impedance spectroscopy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1999; 873(1): 51-58. dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb09448.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    Rigaud B Hamzaoui L Frikha MR Chauveau N Morucci JP. In vitro tissue characterization and modelling using electrical impedance measurements in the 100 Hz-10 MHz frequency range. Physiological Measurement. 1995; 16(3A): A15. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/16/3A/002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 87

    Han A Yang L Frazier AB. Quantification of the heterogeneity in breast cancer cell lines using whole-cell impedance spectroscopy. Clinical Cancer Research. 2007; 3(1): 139-143. dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1346

  • 88

    Instruction Manual 7600 Precision LCR Meter Model B QuadTech Inc. 5 Clock Tower Place 210 East Maynard Massachusetts U.S.A. 01754-2530 October 2002.

  • 89

    Chang Z Pop GAM Meijer GCM. A Comparison of Two-and Four-Electrode Techniques to Characterize Blood Impedance for the Frequency Range of 100 Hz to 100 MHz IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 2008; 55(3): 1247-1249. dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2008.915725

  • 90

    Bera TK Mohamadou Y Lee KH Wi H Oh TI Eung EJ Soleimani M Seo JK. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Electro-mechanical Characterization of Conductive Fabrics. Sensors. 2014; 14: 9738-9754. dx.doi.org/10.3390/s140609738

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    Yúfera A Rueda A. A Method for Bioimpedance Measure With Four- and Two-Electrode Sensor Systems 30th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference Vancouver British Columbia Canada August 20-24 2008 pp 2318-2321. dx.doi.org/10.1109/iembs.2008.4649662

  • 92

    Bera TK and Nagaraju J. A MATLAB-Based Boundary Data Simulator for Studying the Resistivity Reconstruction Using Neighbouring Current Pattern. Journal of Medical Engineering. 2013; Article ID 193578; 15 pages. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/193578

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 93

    Clemente F Romano M Bifulco P Cesarelli M. EIS measurements for characterization of muscular tissue by means of equivalent electrical parameter. Measurement. 2014; 58: 476-482. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2014.09.013

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    Clemente F Arpaia P Manna C. Characterization of human skin impedance after electrical treatment for transdermal drug delivery. Measurement. 2013; 46(9): 3494-3501. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2013.06.033

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    Mishra V Bouyad H Halter RJ. Electrical impedance-based biopsy for prostate cancer detection. In Bioengineering Conference (NEBEC) 2011 IEEE 37th Annual Northeast pp. 1-2 IEEE. dx.doi.org/10.1109/nebc.2011.5778712

  • 96

    Chao PJ Huang EY Cheng KS Huang YJ. Electrical impedance spectroscopy as electrical biopsy for monitoring radiation sequelae of intestine in rats. BioMed Research International. 2013; Article ID 974614 7 pages. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/974614

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 97

    Keshtkar A. Salehnia Z. Keshtkar A. & Shokouhi B. Bladder cancer detection using electrical impedance technique (tabriz mark 1). Pathology research international 2012; Article ID 470101 5 pages. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/470101

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    Hope TA Iles SE. Technology review: the use of electrical impedance scanning in the detection of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research. 2004; 6(2): 69-74. dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr744

  • 99

    Yang L Bashir R. Electrical/electrochemical impedance for rapid detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Biotechnology Advances. 2008; 26(2): 135-150. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2007.10.003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 100

    Yang L Li Y Griffis CL Johnson MG. Interdigitated microelectrode (IME) impedance sensor for the detection of viable Salmonella typhimurium. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2004; 19(10): 1139-1147. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2003.10.009

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 101

    Cai D Ren L Zhao H et al. A molecular-imprint nanosensor for ultrasensitive detection of proteins. Nature Nanotechnology. 2010; 5(8): 597-601. dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2010.114

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    Pan S Rothberg L. Chemical control of electrode functionalization for detection of DNA hybridization by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Langmuir. 2005; 21(3): 1022-1027. dx.doi.org/10.1021/la048083a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    Ollmar S Emtestam L. Electrical impedance applied to non‐invasive detection of irritation in skin. Contact Dermatitis. 1992; 27(1): 37-42. dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1992.tb05195.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 104

    Longbottom C Huysmans MCD Pitts NB Los P Bruce PG. Detection of dental decay and its extent using AC impedance spectroscopy. Nature Medicine. 1996; 2(2) 235-237. dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm0296-235

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 105

    Tidy JA Brown BH Healey TJ Daayana S Martin M Prendiville W Kitchener HC. Accuracy of detection of high‐grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using electrical impedance spectroscopy with colposcopy. International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2013; 120(4): 400-411. dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12096

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 106

    Keshtkar A Keshtkar A Smallwood RH. Electrical impedance spectroscopy and the diagnosis of bladder pathology. Physiological Measurement. 2006; 27(7): 585. dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/27/7/003

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.83

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.138
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.649

Figures
  • View in gallery

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies using the two-probe and four-probe technique. (a) EIS measurements with an impedance analyzer using two-electrode method. (b) EIS measurements with an impedance analyzer using four-electrode method. (c) Current injection and voltage measurement using the four-probe method of the impedance measurement system.

  • View in gallery

    Nyquist plots for different circuit combinations. (a) Nyquist plots for a circuit combination containing a resistor r and a capacitor C in series, (b) Nyquist plots for a circuit combination containing a resistor Rp and a capacitor Cp in parallel (Rp||Cp), (c) Nyquist plots for a circuit combination containing two sub-circuit blocks with a series resistance of Rs and the parallel combination of Rp and a capacitor Cp (Rp||Cp) (d) Nyquist plots for a circuit combination containing three sub-circuit blocks with a series resistance of Rs, (Rp1||Cp1) and (Rp2 || Cp2). (e) Nyquist plots for a circuit combination containing two sub-circuit blocks, (Rp1||Cp1) and ((Rp2+ Warburg impedance (W)) || Cp2), connected in series.

  • View in gallery

    Nyquist plots of circuit combinations containing two sub-circuit blocks: one with series resistance, Rs, and another containing a CPE in parallel with resistance Rp (Rp || CPE).

  • View in gallery

    Equivalent electrical circuit modeling of animal cells. (a) An isolated animal cell and the electrical equivalence of the intracellular fluids (ICF), extracellular fluids (ECF) and the cell membrane (CM). (b) An equivalent electrical circuit model of an isolated animal cell surrounded by ECF.

  • View in gallery

    Equivalent electrical circuit modeling of plant cells. (a) The anatomy of an isolated plant cell showing intracellular fluids (ICF), extracellular fluids (ECF), the cell membrane (CM) and cell wall (CW). (b) An equivalent electrical circuit model of an isolated plant cell without considering tonoplast capacitance.

  • View in gallery

    (a-d) Simulated circuit models developed with different electronic components and different circuit combinations of computer-simulated electrical impedance data. (e-f) Real circuit models developed with different circuit combinations of real electronic circuit components used for impedance data generation with an impedance analyzer.

  • View in gallery

    EIS data collection with the four-probe method using an impedance analyzer. (a) A schematic of the electronic circuit elements in the EIS data collection using the QuadTech7600 impedance analyzer. (b) A schematic of EIS data collection from fruit and vegetable tissues.

  • View in gallery

    EIS studies on fruits and vegetables using the QuadTech7600 impedance analyzer and ECG electrodes. (a) The ECG electrode-based four-electrode array (EE-FEA) used for EIS studies on fruits and vegetables. (b) EIS studies on fruits and vegetables using the QuadTech7600 impedance analyzer.

  • View in gallery

    The LabVIEW-based GUI of the LEBISDI and impedance data loaded in LEBISDI. (a) GUI of LEBISDI and (b) the Nyquist plot obtained in LEBISDI after loading real and imaginary impedance data.

  • View in gallery

    Nyquist plots obtained from computer simulations on CCM in the Matlab-based impedance data generator.

  • View in gallery

    Nyquist plots of simulated impedance data loaded in the GUI of LEBISDI.

  • View in gallery

    Nyquist plots of simulated (capacitive) impedance loaded in LEBISDI after fitting.

  • View in gallery

    Nyquist plots of simulated (inductive) impedance data loaded in LEBISDI after fitting.

  • View in gallery

    Interpretation of the impedance data obtained from real electronic circuit combinations (RCMs) using LEBISDI. (a) Data interpretation for RCM 1, which was a parallel combination of a 1 kΩ resistor and a 0.1 μF capacitor. (b) Data interpretation for RCM 2, which was a parallel combination of a 2 kΩ resistor and a 0.1 μF capacitor.

  • View in gallery

    Impedance data fitting and analysis in LEBISDI for a cucumber. (a) Before fitting: data loaded. (b) After fitting: data calculated.

  • View in gallery

    Impedance data fitting and analysis in LEBISDI for a carrot. (a) Before fitting: data loaded. (b) After fitting: data calculated.

  • View in gallery

    Impedance data fitting and analysis in LEBISDI for a bottle gourd. (a) Before fitting: data loaded. (b) After fitting: data calculated.

  • View in gallery

    Analysis of the variation in the impedance data obtained from the impedance parameter in LEBISDI for a green banana (a) before and (b) after boiling.

  • View in gallery

    Impedance plots obtained for a cucumber over a 22-day storage period using a LEBISDI to show the variation in the impedance parameters for naturally stored vegetables: (a) day 1, (b) day 4, (c) day 7, (d) day 10, (e) day 13, (f) day 16, (g) day 19 and (h) day 22.

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 131 131 83
PDF Downloads 40 40 20