This article illustrates that justification for EU military integration is sought with imperatives related to the economy, security, EU integration, and demands of citizens of the Member States. However, EU Treaties in terms of the improvement of military capabilities are not considered as a justification, but the European Union appears to be more of a power-enhancing realist actor rather than a normative one. As a counterexample to the European discourses, I discuss the case of the demilitarisation of the Åland Islands, in which case treaties perfectly justify demilitarization. I conclude that the development of European military integration is justified by political imperatives, but the demilitarization of the Åland Islands is supported with reference to agreements, which illustrate the differences in justifying military force and its absence. It is concluded that while the European Union appears as a realist actor in terms of defence, Finland complies with the image of a normative power as far as the Åland Islands are concerned.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ashton C. 2013. Final Report by the High Representative/Head of the EDA on the Common Security and Defence Policy. European Defence Agency (EDA) Annual Conference (October) pp.1–27.
Bátora J. 2009. European Defence Agency: A Flashpoint of Institutional Logics. West European Politics 32(6) pp.1075–1098.
Beck U. 2008. Reframing Power in the Globalized World. Organization Studies 29(5) pp.793–804.
Biscop S. 2012. The UK and European defence: Leading or leaving? International Affairs 88(6) pp.1297–1313.
Biscop S. 2016a. The EU Global Strategy: Realpolitik with European Characteristics. Security Policy Brief 75 (June).
Biscop S. 2016b. All or nothing? The EU Global Strategy and defence policy after the Brexit. Contemporary Security Policy 37(3) pp.431–445.
Council of the European Union 2010. Council conclusions on Military Capability Development.
Council of the European Union 2016a. Council conclusions on implementing the EU Global Strategy in the area of Security and Defence.
Council of the European Union 2016b. Implementation Plan on Security and Defence (November) pp.1–31.
Deutsch K.W. et al. 1957. Political community and the North Atlantic area : international organization in the light of historical experience Princeton (N.J.): Princeton University Press.
Diez T. Von Lucke F. & Wellmann Z. 2016. The Securitisation of Climate: Change Actors Processes and Consequences Abingdon: Routledge.
Dijkstra H. 2012. The influence of EU officials in European Security and Defence. European Security 21(3) pp.311–327.
Duke S. 2012. The EU NATO and the Treaty of Lisbon: Still Divided Within a Common City. In: P. J. Cardwell ed. EU External Relations Law and Policy in the Post-Lisbon Era The Hague: Springer Science+Business Media BV pp. 334–355.
European Commission 2013. Towards a more competitive and efficient defence and security sector. COM(2013) 542 final.
European Commission 2015a. In Defence of Europe. EPSC Strategic Notes (4).
European Commission 2015b. Roadmap: European Defence Action Plan.
European Commission 2016. European Defence Action Plan. COM(2016) 950 final.
European Commission 2017. White Paper on the Future of Europe.
European Defence Agency 2012a. European Defence Matters 1.
European Defence Agency 2012b. European Defence Matters 2.
European Defence Agency 2014. European Defence Matters 6.
European Defence Agency 2015a. European Defence Matters 7.
European Defence Agency 2015b. European Defence Matters 8.
European Defence Agency 2015c. European Defence Matters 9.
European Defence Agency 2016. European Defence Matters 11.
European Parliament 2016. Europeans in 2016: Perceptions and expectations fight against terrorism and radicalisation. Special Eurobarometer of the European Parliament.
Finnish Parliament 2016. Minutes of the plenary session on 20 Oct 2016.
Finnish Parliament Committee for Foreign Affairs 2016. Committee Report on the Government’s Foreign and Security Policy Report 9/2016.
Fiott D. 2015. The European Commission and the European Defence Agency: A Case of Rivalry? Journal of Common Market Studies 53(3) pp.542–557.
France & Finland 2016. Declaration on strengthening the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy.
Friis K. & Rechborn-Kjennerud E. 2016. From cyber threats to cyber risks. In: K. Friis & J. Ringsmose eds. Conflict in Cyber Space: Theoretical Strategic and Legal Perspectives. Abingdon Oxfordshire: Routledge pp. 27–44.
Haas E.B. 1961. International Integration: The European and the Universal Process. International Organization 15(3) pp.366–392.
Haas E.B. 1968. The uniting of Europe : political social and economic forces 1950-1957 Stanford California: Stanford University Press.
Hannikainen L. 1994. The Continued Validity of the Dernilitarised and Neutralised Status of the Åland Islands. Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 54(3) pp.614–651.
Hannikainen L. & Lundstedt T. 2016. Kansainvälisen oikeuden rooli nyky-Venäjän ulkopolitiikassa. Finnish Ministry of Defence.
Howorth J. 2003. Why ESDP is Necessary and Beneficial for the Alliance. In: J. Howorth & J.T.S. Keeler (eds) Defending Europe: The EU NATO and the Quest for European Autonomy. Gordonsville Virginia: Palgrave Macmillan pp. 219–238.
Jokela J. 2014. Multi-speed Europe ? Differentiated integration in the external relations of the EU. FIIA Report 38.
Koivula T. 2016. The European Union and the Use of Military Force: Uncovering the Myths Abingdon Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Manners I. 2002. Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms? JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies 40(2) pp.235–258.
Manners I. 2006. Normative Power Europe Reconsidered: Beyond the Crossroads. Journal of European Public Policy 13(2) pp.182–199.
Matlary J.H. 2008. Much ado about little : the EU and human security. International Affairs 84(1) pp.131–143.
Mauro F. & Thoma K. 2016. The Future of EU Defence Research.
Mogherini F. 2016a. Opening Speech by High Representative/Vice-President Federica Mogherini at the 2016 EDA Conference.
Mogherini F. 2016b. Shared Vision Common Action: A Stronger Europe. A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy Available at: https://eeas.europa.eu/top_stories/pdf/eugs_review_web.pdf.
Moravcsik A. 1998. The Choice for Europe : Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. Cornell Studies in Political Economy. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press.
Morozov V. 2002. Human Rights and Foreign Policy Discourse in Today’s Russia: Romantic Realism and Securitisation of Identity. COPRI Working Papers (6/2002).
Müller P. 2016. EU foreign policy: no major breakthrough despite multiple crises. Journal of European Integration 38(3) pp.359–374.
Myntti K. 2016. “Putin driver oss mot Nato”. Vasabladet 8 June 2016.
Niinistö J. 2016a. Ahvenanmaan asia. Jussi Niinistö’s Blog.
Niinistö J. 2016b. Gotlanti ja Ahvenanmaa. Jussi Niinistö’s Blog.
Norheim-Martinsen P.M. 2013. The European Union and Military Force : Governance and Strategy Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peck T 2016. Britain will veto EU army says Defence Secretary. The Independent 17 September 2016.
Poullie Y. 2016. Åland’s Demilitarisation and Neutralisation at the End of the Cold War – Parliamentary Discussions in Åland and Finland 1988–1995. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 23(2) pp.179–210.
Prime Minister’s Office Finland 2016. Finnish Foreign and Security Policy 2016 Government Report 6/2016.
Prime Minister’s Office Finland 2017. Government’s Defence Report. Government Report 5/2017.
Rayroux A. 2013. Speaking EU Defence at Home: Contentious Discourses and Constructive Ambiguity. Cooperation and Conflict 49(3) pp.386–405.
Rettman A. 2016a. Finland calls for “pragmatic” EU defence. EUobserver 27 Sep 2016.
Rettman A. 2016b. Germany: Trump victory to spur EU military union. EUobserver pp.2–5.
Salonius-Pasternak C. 2014. Tutkija Salonius-Pasternak: Suomi voisi olla sotilaallisen iskun ensimmäinen kohde. Helsingin Sanomat 29 Dec 2014.
Schroeder U.C. 2011. The Organization of European Security Governance: Internal and External Security in Transition Abingdon Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Tarkka J. 2015. Ahvenanmaan asia. Etelä-Suomen Sanomat.
Tiilikainen T. 2002. The Åland Islands Finland and European security Mariehamn: The Åland Islands Peace Institute.
Trybus M. 2006. The new European Defence Agency: a contribution to the common European defence policy and a challenge to the community acquis? Common Market Law Review 43(3) pp.667–703.
Weiss T. 2011. The blurring border between the police and the military: A debate without foundations. Cooperation and Conflict 46(3) pp.396–405.
Whitman R.G. 2016. The UK and EU Foreign Security and Defence Policy after Brexit: Integrated Associated or Detached? National Institute Economic Review (238) pp.43–50.
Wodak R. 2001. The Discourse-Historical Approach. In: R. Wodak & M. Meyer eds. Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: SAGE Publications pp.63–94.
Wodak R. 2009. The discourse of politics in action: politics as usual New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wodak R. & Boukala S. 2016. Talking about Solidarity and Security in the Age of Crisis: The Revival of Nationalism and Protectionism in the European Union - A Discourse-Historical Approach. In: C. Carta J.-F. Morin & M. Telo eds. EU Foreign Policy through the Lens of Discourse Analysis: Making Sense of Diversity. Farnham Surrey GBR: Routledge.
Ykkösaamu 2016. Jussi Niinistö. Ykkösaamu 15 Oct.
Österdahl I. 2009. The Neutral Ally: The European Security and Defence Policy and the Swedish Constitution. Nordic Journal of International Law 78 pp.95–132.