The relationships between academic self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and perceived competence

Robert Buch 1 , Reidar Säfvenbom 2  and Ole Boe 3
  • 1 Associate Professor, researcher at Department of Physical Education, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway
  • 2 Associate Professor, Norwegian Defence University College, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Defence Institute, Norway
  • 3 Associate Professor, Norwegian Military Academy, Department of Leadership and Tactics, Norway

Abstract

This study investigated the moderating role of intrinsic motivation for military studies on the relationship between academic self-efficacy and change in perceived military competence. We present two concurrent hypotheses based on theoretical interaction effects of intrinsic motivation. Data from 245 cadets from three military academies revealed a positive relationship between self-efficacy and an increase in perceived military competence only for cadets with lower levels of intrinsic motivation. This suggests that, with lower intrinsic motivation, beliefs about one’s capabilities to organize and take courses of action to attain certain goals may make a crucial difference in cadets’ compliance to exert effort to increase their military competence. In contrast, self-efficacy seems less important for increased perception of military competence in cadets with higher intrinsic motivation. These cadets probably increase their military competence mainly as a result of the pleasure they gain when engaging in educational activities. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Adler, AB, Thomas, JL & Castro, CA 2005, "Measuring Up: Comparing Self-Reports With Unit Records for Assessing Soldier Performance", Military Psychology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3-24.

  • Aiken, LS & West, SG 1991, Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

  • Bandura, A 1977, Social learning theory, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

  • Bandura, A 1986, Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs.

  • Bandura, A 1991, "Social cognitive theory of self-regulation", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 248-287.

  • Bandura, A 1994, "Self-efficacy", in Encyclopedia of human behavior, vol. 4, ed. VS Ramachaudran, Academic Press, New York, pp. 71-81.

  • Bandura, A 2012, "On the Functional Properties of Perceived Self-Efficacy Revisited", Journal of Management, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 9-44.

  • Bollen, KA 1989, Structural equations with latent variables, Wiley, New York.

  • Bong, M 2001, "Between- and within-domain relations of academic motivation among middle and high school students: Self-efficacy, task-value, and achievement goals", Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 93, pp. 23-34.

  • Brown, R 2000, Group Processes, 2nd edn, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK.

  • Cohen, J, Cohen, P, West, SG & Aiken, LS 2003, Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences, 3rd edn, Erlbaum, London, UK.

  • Deci, EL, Connell, JP & Ryan, RM 1989, "Self-Determination in a Work Organization", Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 580-590.

  • Deci, EL & Ryan, RM 1985, Intrinsic motivation and selfdetermination in human behavior, Plenum, New York.

  • Deci, EL & Ryan, RM 2000, "The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior", Psychological Inquiry, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 227-268.

  • Dysvik, A, Kuvaas, B & Buch, R 2010, "Trainee programme reactions and work performance: The moderating role of intrinsic motivation", Human Resource Development International, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 409-423.

  • Fabrigar, LR, Wegener, DT, MacCallum, RC & Strahan, EJ 1999, "Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research", Psychological Methods, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 272-299. Available from: pdh.

  • Fan, XB, Thompson, B & Wang, L 1999, "Effects of sample size, estimation method, and model specification on structural equation modeling fit indices", Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, pp. 56-83.

  • Ford, JK, MacCallum, RC & Tait, M 1986, "The application of exploratory factor analysis in applied psychology: A critical review and analysis", Personnel Psychology, vol. 39, pp. 291-314.

  • Gagné, M & Deci, EL 2005, "Self-determination theory and work motivation", Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 331-362.

  • Gruber, KA, Kilcullen, RN & Iso-Ahola, SE 2009, "Effects of Psychosocial Resources on Elite Soldiers’ Completion of a Demanding Military Selection Program", Military Psychology, vol. 21, pp. 427-444.

  • Guay, F, Vallerand, RJ & Blanchard, CM 2000, "On the assessment of state intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The situational motivation scale (SIMS)", Motivation and Emotion, vol. 24, pp. 175-213.

  • Gully, SM, Incalcaterra, KA, Joshi, A & Beaubien, JM 2002, "A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships", Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 819-832.

  • Hackman, JR & Oldham, GR 1976, "Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory", Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 250-279.

  • Hammermeister, J, Pickering, MA, McGraw, L & Ohlson, C 2010, "Relationship between

  • psychological skill profiles and soldier physical fitness performance", Military Psychology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 399-411.

  • Harrison, DA, McLaughlin, ME & Coalter, TM 1996, "Context, cognition, and common method variance: Psychometric and verbal protocol evidence.", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 246-261.

  • Hinkin, TR 1998, "A Brief Tutorial on the Development of Measures for Use in Survey Questionnaires", Organizational Research Methods, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 104-121.

  • Humphrey, SE, Nahrgang, JD & Morgeson, FP 2007, "Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature", Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1332-1356.

  • Hurley, AE, Scandura, TA, Schriesheim, CA, Brannick, MT, Seers, A, Vandenberg, RJ & Williams, LJ 1997, "Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Guidelines, issues, and alternatives", Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 667-683.

  • Johansen, RB, Laberg, JC & Martinussen, M 2013, "Military Identity as Predictor of Perceived Military Competence and Skills", Armed Forces & Society.

  • Kelloway, EK 1995, "Structural equation modeling in perspective", Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 16, no. 215-224.

  • Lent, RW, Brown, SD & Larkin, KC 1986, "Self-efficacy in the prediction of academic performance and perceived career options", Journal of Counselling Psychology, vol. 33, pp. 265-269.

  • Marsh, H, W. & Yeung, AS 1997, "Causal effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement: Structural equation models of longitudinal data", Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 89, pp. 41-54.

  • Moritz, SE, Feltz, DL, Fahrbach, KR & Mack, DE 2000, "The relation of self-efficacy measures to sport performance: A meta-analytic review", Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 280-94. Available from: ProQuest Health & Medical Complete; ProQuest Medical Library; ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source.

  • Multon, KD, Brown, SD & Lent, RW 1991, "Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation", Journal of Counseling Psychology, vol. 38, pp. 30-38.

  • Nunnally, JC 1978, Psychometric theory, 2nd edn, McGraw-Hill, New York.

  • Pajares, F 2002, "Gender and Perceived Self-Efficacy in Self-Regulated Learning", Theory Into Practice, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 116-125. [2014/06/25].

  • Pajares, F & Miller, MD 1994, "Role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in mathematical problem solving: A path analysis", Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 89, pp. 193-203.

  • Pajares, F & Schunk, DH 2001, "Self-beliefs and school success: Self-efficacy, self-concept, and school achievement", in Perception, eds R Riding & S Rayner, Ablex Publishing., London, pp. 239-266.

  • Pajares, F & Urdan, T (eds) 2006, Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents, Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, CT. Podsakoff, PM, MacKenzie, SB, Lee, J-Y &

  • Podsakoff, NP 2003, "Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies", Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 879-903. Available from: pdh.

  • Robbins, SB, Lauver, K, Le, H, Davis, D, Langley, R & Carlstrom, A 2004, "Do Psychosocial and Study Skill Factors Predict College Outcomes? A Meta-Analysis", Psychological Bulletin, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 261-288.

  • Ryan, RM & Deci, EL 2000, "Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being", American Psychologist, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 68-78.

  • Sadri, G & Robertson, IT 1993, "Self-efficacy and Work-related Behaviour: A Review and Meta-analysis", Applied Psychology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 139-152.

  • Schmitt, N, J. , Cortina, M, Ingerick, MJ & Wiechmann, C 2003, "Personnel selection and employee performance", in Handbook of psychology, vol. 12, eds WC Borman, DR Ilgen & RJ Klimoski, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 77-105.

  • Schunk, DH & Zimmermann, BJ 1997, "Social origins of self-regulatory competence", Educational Psychology, vol. 32, pp. 195-208.

  • Siemsen, E, Roth, A & Oliveira, P 2010, "Common Method Bias in Regression Models With Linear, Quadratic, and Interaction Effects", Organizational Research Methods, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 456-476.

  • Skaalvik, S & Skaalvik, EM 2005, "Self-concept, motivational orientation, and help-seeking behavior in mathematics: A study of adults returning to high school", Social Psychology of Education, vol. 8, pp. 285-302.

  • Skinner, EA, Wellborn, J & Connell, J 1990, "What it takes to do well in school and whether I’ve got it: a process model of perceived control and children’s engagement and achievement in school", Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 82, pp. 22-32.

  • Stajkovic, AD & Luthans, F 1998, "Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis", Psychological Bulletin, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 240-261.

  • Steiger, JH 1989, Causal modeling: a supplementary module for SYSTAT and SYSGRAPH, SYSTAT, Evanston, IL.

  • Thomas, KW 2002, Intrinsic motivation at work: Building energy & commitment, Berret-Koehler Publishers, San Fransisco, CA.

  • Vallerand, RJ 1997, "Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation", in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 29, ed. MP Zanna, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 271-360.

  • van Dinther, M, Dochy, F & Segers, M 2011, "Factors affecting students’ self-efficacy in higher education", Educational Research Review, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 95-108.

  • Vancouver, JB & Kendall, LN 2006, "When self-efficacy negatively relates to motivation and performance in a learning context", Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 1146-1153.

  • Vancouver, JB, Thompson, CM, Tischner, EC & Putka, DJ 2002, "Two studies examining the negative effect of self-efficacy on performance", Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 506-516.

  • Vancouver, JB, Thompson, CM & Williams, AA 2001, "The changing signs in the relationships among self-efficacy, personal goals, and performance", Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 605-620.

  • Weinstein, N & Ryan, RM 2011, "A self-determination theory approach to understanding stress incursion and responses", Stress and Health, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 4-17.

  • Wrzesniewski, A, Schwartz, B, Cong, X, Kane, M, Omar, A & Kolditz, T 2014, "Multiple types of motives don't multiply the motivation of West Point cadets", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111, no. 30, pp. 10990-10995.

  • Zazanis, MM, Zaccaro, SJ & Kilcullen, RN 2001, "Identifying motivation and interpersonal performance using peer evaluations", Military Psychology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 73-88.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search