Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine a structure of brand personality at an ecological level and to develop norms for positioning a particular brand in relation to other brands by means of brand personality scales.
Methodology: We present the results of a study in which 1,642 participants aged 15 to 82 (mean 35.3; 51.9% females) were involved. Each respondent marked three to four brands from different categories of goods and services on a 20-item adjectival list for measuring brand personality. As a result, 6,548 descriptions of 224 brands from 46 categories were collected.
Findings: Our analyses show that the structure of the differences among brand personalities on the Polish market can be described in terms of four dimensions: competence, spontaneity, subtlety, and egoism. The established dimensions explain 85% of the variance. A distribution of the results within the scales applied served as a basis for establishing specific norms for each of the four scales.
Limitations: The norms established have a country-level character and are inclusively adequate and reliable for companies that purchase products and services on the Polish market.
Originality: Our study presents a new, ecological approach to thinking about brands. Namely, it enables a more precise determination of the position of a certain brand in relation to many other competing brands and allows for a more efficient use of the potential for constructing brand personality.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Aaker J.L. (1997). Dimensions of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research 34: 347-356 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3151897
Aaker J.L. Benet-Martínez V. and Garolera J. (2001). Consumption Symbols as Carriers of Culture: A Study of Japanese and Spanish Brand Personality Constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81: 492-508 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.522
Alvarez C. and Fournier S. (2016). Consumers’ relationships with brands. Current Opinion in Psychology 10: 129-135 doi:
Ambroise L. and Valette-Florence P. (2010). The Brand Personality Metaphor and Inter-product Stability of a Specific Barometer. Recherche et Applications en Marketing 25: 3-28 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/205157071002500201
Angleitner A. Ostendorf F. and John O.P. (1990). Towards a Taxonomy of Personality Descriptors in German: A Psycho-Lexical Study. European Journal of Personality 4: 89-118 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/per.2410040204
Austin J.R. Siguaw J.A. and Mattila A.S. (2003). A Re-Examination of the Generalizability of the Aaker Brand Personality Measurement Framework. Journal of Strategic Marketing 11: 77-92 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0965254032000104469
Azoulay A. and Kapferer J.N. (2003). Do Brand Personality Scales Really Measure Brand Personality? Brand Management 11: 143-155 http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540162
Bernstein I.H. Garbin C.P. and Teng G.K. (2012). Applied Multivariate Analysis. New York: Springer- -Verlag.
Bosnjak M. and Brand C. (2008). The Impact of Undesired Self-Image Congruence on Consumption-- Related Attitudes and Intentions. International Journal of Management 25: 673-683.
Bosnjak M. Bochmann V. and Hufschmidt T. (2007). Dimensions of Brand Personality Attributions: A Person-Centric Approach in the German Cultural Context. Social Behavior and Personality 35: 303-316 http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2007.35.3.303
Caballero R.J. (1992). A Fallacy of Composition. American Economic Review 82: 1279-1292.
Denoue M. and Saykiewicz J.N. (2009). Brand Loyalty as a Tool of Competitive Advantage. Master of Business Administration 17: 36-45.
Eisend M. and Stokburger-Sauer N.E. (2013). Measurement Characteristics of Aaker’s Brand Personality Dimensions: Lessons to be Learned from Human Personality Research. Psychology and Marketing 30: 950-958.
Eisend M. and Stokburger-Sauer N.E. (2013). Measurement Characteristics of Aaker’s Brand Personality Dimensions: Lessons to be Learned from Human Personality Research. Psychology and Marketing 30: 950-958 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.20658
Geuens M. Weijters B. and De Wulf K. (2009). A New Measure of Brand Personality. International Journal of Research in Marketing 26: 97-107 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2008.12.002
Gorbaniuk O. (2011). Personifikacja marki: perspektywa psychologiczna i marketingowa. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL.
Gorbaniuk O. Budzińska A. Owczarek M. Bożek E. and Juros K. (2013). The Factor Structure of Polish Personality-Descriptive Adjectives: An Alternative Psycho-Lexical Study. European Journal of Personality 27: 304-318 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/per.1921
Gorbaniuk O. Maciejewska A. Kisiel A. Kolańska M. and Filipowska J. (2014). Systematyzacja i pomiar postrzeganych zmian w obrazie siebie konsumentów pod wpływem korzystania z marek usług. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe 22 45-64 http://dx.doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.68
Gwin C.F. and Gwin C.R. (2003). Product Attributes Model: A Tool for Evaluating Brand Positioning. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 11(2): 30-42.
Kumar A. and Venkatesakumar R. (2015). Creating a Business-Media Brand Personality Scale. International Journal of Business and Social Science 6: 50-61.
Moons I. and De Pelsmacker P. (2014). Developing Different Types of Anticipated Experience Positioning for Electric Cars. Journal of Brand Management 21: 216-235 http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/bm.2014.2
Plummer J.T. (1985). How Personality Makes a Difference. Journal of Advertising Research 24(6): 27-31.
Robinson W.S. (1950). Ecological Correlations and the Behavior of Individuals. American Sociological Review 15 351-357 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2087176
Rojas-Méndez J. Erenchun-Podlech I. and Silva-Olave E. (2004). The Ford Brand Personality in Chile. Corporate Reputation Review 7: 232-251.
Saucier G. (2009). Semantic and Linguistic Aspects of Personality. In: P.J. Corr and G. Matthews (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology (pp. 379-399). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1504_8
Sung Y. and Tinkham S.F. (2005). Brand Personality Structures in the United States and Korea: Common and Culture-Specific Factors. Journal of Consumer Psychology 15: 334-350 http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1504_8
Sung Y. Choi S.M. Ahn H. and Song Y.A. (2015). Dimensions of Luxury Brand Personality: Scale Development and Validation. Psychology and Marketing 32: 121-132 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar
Supphellen M. and Gronhaug K. (2003). Building Foreign Brand Personalities in Russia: The Moderating Effect of Consumer Ethnocentrism. International Journal of Advertising 22: 203-226.
Taranko T. and Chmielewski K.J. (2014). Brand as a Source of Value for Its Buyer and Owner. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe 4: 133-143 http://dx.doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.125
Tong X. and Su J. (2014). Exploring the Personality of Sportswear Brands. Sport Business and Management: An International Journal 4: 178-192 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SBM-08-2012-0032