Waste and Pollution in the Ancient Roman Empire

Open access

Abstract

This article describes select examples of waste management from the Roman Empire (27 BCE to 365 CE). Classical written sources and anthropological and archeological literature were studied. The central theme of this paper is ancient man’s relationship with waste and his responses to pollution.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Alexander J. H. (1993). In defense of garbage. Westport CT: Praeger.

  • Aldrete G. S. (2007). Floods of the Tiber in ancient Rome. JHU Press.

  • Adkins L. et Adkins R. A. (2004). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Updated Edition. New York.

  • Bilitewski B. B. Hardle G. Marek K. (1997). Waste Management. Springer. Berlin.

  • Blair I. Spain R. Swift D. Taylor T. & Goodburn D. (2006). Wells and bucket-chains: unforeseen elements of water supply in early Roman London. Britannia37 1-52.

  • Classen C. Howes D. & Synnott A. (1994). Aroma: The cultural history of smell. Taylor & Francis.

  • Claridge A. Toms J. & Cubberley T. (1998). Rome: an Oxford archaeological guide. Oxford University Press.

  • Curtis R. I. (Feb–Mar 1983). “In Defense of Garum”. The Classical Journal 78 (3): 232–240.

  • Dawkins R. (1999). The extended phenotype: The long reach of the gene. Oxford University Press.

  • Douglas M. (1966). Purity and Danger. Analysis of the concepts of pollution and taboo. London.

  • Edwards C. (2008). Lives of the Caesars. Oxford University Press.

  • Elias N. (2000). The Civilizing Process. Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations. Revised edition. Oxford. Blackwell.

  • Evans H. B. (1997). Water distribution in ancient Rome: The evidence of Frontinus. University of Michigan Press.

  • Glaser F. (2006). Glaser Franz (Klagenfurt): “Canalization.” Brill’s New Pauly. Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. Brill Online 2015. Reference. Masaryk University - Masarykova. Retrieved October 20 2015 from <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/brill-s-new-pauly/canalization-e608010> First appeared online: 2006.

  • Havlíček F. (2015). Waste Management in Hunter-Gatherer Communities. Journal of Landscape Ecology (2015) Vol: 8 / No. 2.

  • Höcker Ch. (2006). “Latrines.” Brill’s New Pauly. Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. Brill Online 2015. Reference. Masaryk University - Masarykova. Retrieved October 19 2015 from <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/brill-s-new-pauly/latrines-e632530>First appeared online: 2006.

  • Hong S. Candelone J. P. Patterson C. C. & Boutron C. F. (1994). Greenland ice evidence of hemispheric lead pollution two millennia ago by Greek and Roman civilizations. Science265(5180) 1841-1843.

  • Hopkins J. N. (2007). The Cloaca Maxima and the monumental manipulation of water in archaic Rome. The Waters of Rome 4 1-15.

  • Hughes J. D. (1996). Pan’s Travail: Environmental Problems of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. Baltimore. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1996.

  • Hughes J. D. (2001). An Environmental History of the World. Routledge. London.

  • Hughes J. D. (2014). Environmental Problems of the Greeks and Romans: 2nd edition. Ecology in the Ancient Mediterranean. Johns Hopkins University Press.

  • Juvenal (1967). The Sixteen Satires [by] Juvenal. Penguin.

  • Kelly K. (1973). Garbage: the history and future of Garbage in America. Dutton Adult.

  • Korn F. J. (2002). Hidden Rome. Paulist Press.

  • Jelínek P. et Kysučan L. (2014). Venkov a krajina. Evropská krajina mezi venkovem a městem mezi antikou a novověkem. (Countryside and landscape. The landscape between rural and urban between antiquity and the modern era) MuniPress. Brno.

  • McLaughlin T. (1973). Coprophilia or A Peck of Dirt. Cassell. London.

  • Mitchell P. D. (2015). Sanitation Latrines and Intestinal Parasites in Past Populations. Farnhame: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

  • Milner N.P. (1993). Vegetius: Epitome of Military Science. Liverpool: University Press 1993.

  • Martialis M. V. (1993). Epigrams. In (translated by DR Shackleton Bailey) Loeb Classical Library 1.

  • Murdock G. P. (1945). The common denominator of cultures. In R. Linton (Ed.) The science of man in world crisis. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • Mumford L. (1961). The city in history: Its origins its transformations and its prospects. New York: Harcourt Brace & World.

  • Neudecker R. (1994). Die Pracht der latrine. Zum Wandel öffentlicher Bedürfnisanstalten in der kaiserzeitlichen Stadt 154-155.

  • Parslow C. (1995). Rediscovering antiquity: Karl Weber and the excavation of Herculaneum Pompeii and Stabiae. Cambridge University Press.

  • Peña J. T. (2007). Roman pottery in the archaeological record. Cambridge University Press.

  • Pichtel J. (2005). Waste management practices: municipal hazardous and industrial. CRC Press.

  • Powell O. & Wilkins J. (2003). Galen: On the properties of foodstuffs. Cambridge University Press.

  • Rackham H. (1968). Pliny the Elder: Natural History Loeb Classical Library.

  • Robinson M. et Rowan E. (2015). Roman Food Remains in Archaeology at the Contens of a Roman Sewer at Herculaneum. In A Companion to Food in the Ancient World edited by John Wilkins and Robin Nadeau. London: Wiley-Blackwall.

  • Rodriguez Almeida E. (1984). Il Monte Testaccio. Ambiente storia materiali.

  • Smith V. (2007). Clean: a History of Personal Hygiene and Purity. Oxford University Press.

  • Tacitus C. (2008). The Annals: The Reigns of Tiberius Claudius and Nero: The Reigns of Tiberius Claudius and Nero. Oxford University Press.

  • Thommen L. (2012). An environmental history of ancient Greece and Rome. Cambridge University Press.

  • Thüry G. E. (2001). Müll und Marmorsäulen. Siedlungshygiene in der Römischen Antike. Mainz: P. von Zabern.

  • Trevelyan G. M. (1907). Garibaldi’s Defence of the Roman Catholic Republic. Longmans Green and Company.

  • Vesilind P. A. Worrell W. & Reinhart D. (2002). Solid waste engineering. Brooks/Cole. Pacific Grove. California USA.

  • Walsh P.G. (2006). Complete letters / Pliny the younger; translated with an introduction and notes by P.G. Walsh. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2006.

  • Wardle D. (2015). Suetonius: Life of Augustus. Oxford University Press.

  • Weeber K. W. (2006). “Refuse.” Brill’s New Pauly. Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. Brill Online 2015. Reference. Masaryk University - Masarykova. Retrieved October 18 2015 from <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/brill-s-new-pauly/refuse-e810890>First appeared online: 2006.

  • William I. (1997). The Anatomy of Disgust. Cambridge Mass. Harvard University Press.

  • Wexler P. (2014). History of Toxicology and Environmental Health: Toxicology in Antiquity II. Academic Press.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.45

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.183
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.233

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1244 868 47
PDF Downloads 521 386 9