This study examined the extent of resource use and the level of degradation consequent upon land use. Three distinctive trends were observed in terms of forest and land cover dynamics. These are forest degradation, deforestation and regeneration. The paper integrated both, topographical map of 1969 and satellite imageries from Landsat MSS 1972, and Landsat TM 1991 and 2000 with ground truthing and socio-economic surveys to assess changes in forest resource use and land cover in South-western Nigeria. The satellite images were analysed using ILWIS software version 3.4. Based on ground truth data and remotely sensed data, the study area was classified into five categories using the supervised maximum likelihood classification technique. The accuracy assessment was carried out on the remotely sensed data. A total of 30 points for each dataset were selected for this operation and the overall accuracy of 90%, 86.7% and 85% respectively was obtained from the three image datasets. Results showed three dominant ecological communities in Oluwa Forest Reserve while two effects of changes on species were identified. The first was the replacement of what could be considered as the original species by other species tolerant to the ‘new’ ecosystem. The other was the reduction in the range of the original species that could be found. This was an indication that the area had been fragmented comparing to its original status. Results suggest that resource utilization and land cover change dynamically over time. The study also revealed that the creation of forest reserve to restrict local access and resource use would have been an effective tool for regulating encroachment and logging activities if there was an effective enforcement of regulation. It is therefore obvious that the main aim of environmental management should be the protection of the natural living space of humankind and integration of environmental scarcity in making decision on all economic issues and activities.
Adejuwon, J. O. & Ekanade, O., (1988). A comparison of soil properties under different landuse types in a part of the Nigeria cocoa belt. CATENA.15: 319-331.
Adesina, F. A. (1997). Vegetation Degradation and Environmental Changes in the Tropics. Ife Research Publications in Geography, 6:1&2,pp. 68-78.
Adeyoju, S. K. (1975). Forestry and the Nigerian Economy. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan.
Barkley, P. W. and Seckler, D. W (1972). Economic growth and environmental decay: The solution becomes the problem. Harcourt Publishers Group (Australia) Pty. Ltd.
Bilsborrow, R. E. (1994). Population development and deforestation: some recent evidence. In: Population, Environment and Development (pp. 117-134), edited by the United Nations (New York: U. N.)
Briassoulis, H. (2002). “Analysis of land use change: Theoretical and modeling approach.” Ph. D Thesis (unpublished), Department of Geography, University of Aesgean Lessees, Greece. 206 pp.
Dunster, J (1994). Environmental Impact Assessment of the Proposed Pulp Mill development in the Bara Forest District, Nepal (IUCN).
Fosberg, F. G., Garnier, B. J. & Kuchler, A. W. (1961). “Delimitation of humid tropics”. Geographical Review, 51: 333 - 339.
Garnier, B. J. (1961). Mapping the humid tropics - “climatic criteria”. Geographical Review, 51: 339 - 346.
Geist, H. (1999). Exploring the Entry Point for Political Ecology in the International Research Agenda on Global Environmental Change. Zeitschrift fur Wirtschaftsgeographie. Vol 43 (3/4), pp.158 - 168.
Hall, J. B. (1977). Forest types in Nigeria: an analysis of pre-exploitation forest enumeration data. Journal of Ecology 65: 187 -199.
Iloeje, N. P. (1981). A New Geography of Nigeria. Rev. ed. Longman, Ibadan, 201pp.
Lambin, E. F., Baulies, X., Bockstael, N., Fischer, G., Krug,T., Leemans, R., Moran, E. F., Rindfuss, R. R., Sato, Y., Skole, D., Turner, B. L. II & Vogel, C. (1999). Land-Use and Land-Cover (LUCC) - Implementation Strategy. A core project of the International Geosphere-Biossohere Programme and the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (=IGBP Report; 48/IHDP Report; 10). - IGBP Secretariat: Bonn.
Lambin, E. F., Turner, B. L. II, Geist, H. J., Agbola, S. B., Angelsen, A., Bruce, J. W., Coomes, O., Dirzo, R., Fischer, G., Folke, C., George, P. S., Home-Wodd, K., Imbernon, J., Leemans, R., Moran, E. F., Mortimore, M., Ramakkrishnan, P. S., Richards, J. F., Skanes, H., Steffen, W., Stone, G. D., Svedin, U., Veldkamp, T. A., Vogel, C. & Xu, J. (2001). The causes of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change. Moving beyond the myths. Global Environmental Change: Human Policy Dimensions. Vol. 4 (in print).
McConnell, W., & Moran, E., (2000). “Explaining Large-Scale Historical Change.” Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30(1): 89-1 12.
Meyers, W. B. (1995). Past and Present Land Use and Land Cover in the USA. COSEQUENCES: Vol. 1: 1, 12pp.
Ola-Adams, B. A. (1978). Dry matter production and nutrient contents in a stand of coppiced Cassia Siamea Lam in Ibadan Fuel Plantation. Nigeria Journal of Science 12 (1 and 2): 293 - 301.
Ola-Adams, B. A. (1981). Strategies for conversation and utilization of forest genetic resources in Nigeria. The Nigeria Journal of Forestry Vol.11:2: 32-39.
Orimoogunje, O. O. I. (1999). An Assessment of Management Strategy of Forest Reserves in Osun State, Nigeria. Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Geography, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.
Orimoogunje, O. O. I. (2000). Vegetation: A sustainer being endangered. Paper Presented at National Conference on Environmental Education held at Ekiadolor College of Education, Benin City between 15th and 17th Nov. 2000.
Orimoogunje, O. O. I. (2005). The impact of land use dynamics on Oluwa Forest Reserve in South-western, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, Department of Geography, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.
Orimoogunje, O. O. I., Ekanade, O. & Adesina, F. A. (2009). Land use changes and forest reserve management in a changing environment: South-western Nigeria experience. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, Nairobi, Kenya, 2 (11): 283 - 290.
Orimoogunje, O. O. I. & Ekanade, O. (2010). Ecological implication of land use dynamics: The case of Oluwa Forest Reserve in Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad and Tobago 87(2): 49 - 57.
Ekanade, O. & Orimoogunje, O. O. I. (2012). Application of Canonical Correlation for Soil-Vegetation Interrelationship in the Cocoa Belt of South Western Nigeria. Resources and Environment, CA 91731, U. S. A. 2(3): 87-92.
Osunade, M. A. A. (1991). Agricultural change by supplanting process in a traditional farming system. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 17:201-209.
Salami, A. T. (1995). Structural Changes in Vegetal Cover in Ife and Ede Regions of South-western Nigeria between 1963 and 1993. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, Department of Geography, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.
Salami, A. T., Ekanade, O. & Oyinloye, R. O. (1999). Detection of forest reserve incursion in Southwestern Nigeria from a combination of multi-date aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite imagery. Int. Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 20, N0 8, 1487-1497.
Tatsuoka, M. M. (1971). Multivariate Analysis Techniques for Educational and Psychological Research. New York: John Wiley.
Turner, B. L. II, Clark, W. C., Kates, R. W., Richards, J. F., Matthews, J. T., & Meyers, W. B. (1990). The earth as transformed by human action. Global and regional changes in the biosphere over the past 300 years. - Cambridge University Press, New York, Port Chester, Melbourne and Sydney.
Turner, B. L. & Meyers, W. B. (1994). Global Land-Use and Land-Cover Change: An overview. In: Meyers, W. B and Turner, B. L. II (eds): Changes in Land-Use and Land-Cover: A Global Perspective (pp. 3 - 10), University of Cambridge: Cambridge, New York, Melbourne.
White, F. (1983). Vegetation Map of Africa. UNESCO, AETFAT, UNSO.
World Bank (1991). Forest Sector Policy Paper. The World Bank. Washington. DC.
Young, A., (1994). Towards International Classification Systems for Land Use And Land Cover. In: UNEP/FAO. Report of the UNEP/FAO. Expert Meeting on Harmonising Land Cover and Land Use Classifications. Geneva. 23 - 25 November 1993. GEMS Report Series N0 25, UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya.