The Role of Hillshade, Aspect, and Toposhape in the Woodland Dieback of Arid and Semi-Arid Ecosystems: A Case Study in Zagros Woodlands of Ilam Province, Iran

Open access

Abstract

Soil moisture plays a key role in the ecological capability of arid and semi-arid woodland. Reducing soil moisture due to frequent droughts causes pest prevalence and disease outbreak and the consequence of forest dieback. On the other hand, soil moisture is strongly correlated with the amount of radiation received on the Earth’s surface. The sun’s radiation is traditionally described often by aspect and sometimes by toposhape. The use of the hillshade map for estimating solar radiation is possible through developing GIS. The present study aimed to compare the relationship and the ability of these indices to describe the phenomenon of arid and semi-arid woodland decline better and more accurately in a case study in the west of Iran. To this aim, the aspect and toposhape layers were generated in 5 and 12 classes, respectively. Then, the hillshade map in range of 0-255 was made during the peak of summer heat. The comparison of the dieback ratio in the three characteristic histograms showed that the shade index, unlike the other two indicators, had a significant effect on forest drought (R2=0.91 for linear equation and R2=0.94 for quadratic equation). The results indicated that the application of hillshade in describing and analysing ecological processes by relying on soil moisture such as woodland dieback is superior to the other two indicators. It is suggested that this index be used to obtain a risk model to predict woodlands dieback which are under the pressure of frequent droughts due to climate change or other mortal factors.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Ahmadi Sani N. Babai Kafaki S. and Mataji A. (2011). Evaluation of ecological capability of northern Zagros woodlands for ecotourism activities using Multi-Criteria Decision Making. Town And Country Planning 3(4): 45-64 (In Persian).

  • Akpinar E. & Usul N. (2005). GIS in Forest Fires. ESRI Intern. User Conf. on CD.

  • Breda N. Huc R. Granier A. Dreyer E. (2006). Temperate forest trees and stands under severe drought: a review of ecophysiological responses adaptation processes and long-term consequences. Annals of Forest Science 63: 625–644.

  • Cadell W. (2002). Report on the generation and analysis of DEMs for spatial modelling. Retrieved September 15 2002 from www.macaulay.ac.uk.

  • Cioban A. Criveanu H. Ioana Pop F.M. Rotaru A. (2013). Aspects of Solar Radiation Analysis using ArcGis. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture 70(2): 437-440.

  • Condit R. Aguilar S. Hernandez A. Perez R. Lao S. Angehr G. Hubbell S.P. Foster R.B. (2004). Tropical forest dynamics across a rainfall gradient and the impact of an El Nin˜o dry season. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20 51–72.

  • Espahbodi K. & Tabari M. (2004). Determination of the most suitable shade conditions for the cultivation of Fagus orientalis seedlings in mountain nurseries of Malek Sangheh Iranian Journal of Natural Resources. 57(3): 439-446.

  • Farque L. Sinoquet H. and Colin F. (2001). Canopy structure and light interception in Quercus petraea seedlings in relation to light regime and plant density. Article summary. Tree physiology 21: 1257-1267.

  • Franklin J. McCullough P. and Gray C. (2000). Terrain variables used for predictive mapping of vegetation communities in Southern California In J.P. Wilson & J.C. Gallant (eds.) Terrain Analysis: Principles and Applications (331-353p) John Wiley & Sons New York.

  • Fu P. & Rich P.M. (1999). Design and implementation of the Solar Analyst: an ArcView extension for modeling solar radiation at landscape scales. Proceedings of the 19th Annual ESRI User Conference San Diego USA.

  • Gardiner E.S. & Hodges J. (1998). Growth and biomass distribution of cherrybark oak seedling as influenced by light availability. Forest Ecology and Management 108: 127-134.

  • Gianini R. (1971). Survival and growth of Various Tree Seedling as Affected by Light Intensity Annli Accademia Lataliana di Scienze Forestali 20: 201-225.

  • Groess H.)1983). Untersuchungen Zur kunstlichen verjungung des Bergmisschwaldes. Forchungsberichte Forstl. Forschungsanstalt Muenchen 55: 206p.

  • Guo Y. Shelton M.G. and Zang H. (2000). Effects of light regimes on 1-year-old Sweetgum and Wateroak seedlings. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–48. Asheville NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Southern Research Station 373-376p.

  • Guth P.L. (1999). Contour line “ghosts” in USGS level 2 DEMs photogrammetric. Engineering & Remote Sensing 65(3): 289-296.

  • Hamzepour M. Kia-dalari H. and Bordbar S.K. (2010). Preliminary Study of Iranian oak necrosis in Barm prairie of Kazeroon Fars province research and spruce forests of Iran 19(2): 352-363.

  • Holmgren M. Stapp P. Dickman C.R. Gracia C. Graham S. Gutierrez J.R. Hice C. Jaksic F. Kelt D.A. Letnic M. Mauricio L. Lo´pez B.C. Meserve P.L. Milstead B.W. Polis G.A. Previtali M.A. Richter M. Sabate´ S. Squeo F.A. (2006). Extreme climatic events shape arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 4: 87–95.

  • Horsch B. (2003). Modeling the spatial distribution of mountain and sub alpine forests in the central Alps using digital elevation models. Ecological Modeling. 168: 267-282.

  • Hosseinzadeh J. & pourhashemi M. (2015). Investigation on relationship between crown indices and the severity of decline in Ilam Oak forests. Iranian Journal of Forest 7(1): 57-66.

  • Hosseinzadeh J. Pourhashemi M. and Sagheb-Talebi Kh. (2017). Investigation of effective factors on Oak (Quercus brantii) decline and strategies in forests of Ilam province. Research Project Report Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands 304pp.

  • Iverson L. Dale M. Scott C. and Prasad A. (1997). A GIS-derived integrated moisture index to predict forest composition and productivity of Ohio forests (U.S.A.). Landscape Ecology 12: 331–348.

  • Jafari M. Pourhashemi M. Hosseinzadeh J. Norouzi A.A. Mirakhorloo Kh. And Mohamadpour M. (2013). Province Recognition and zoning of stands affected by oak decline using GIS & RS in Ilam. Research Project Report Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands 304pp.

  • Jahanpour F. Fatahi M. Khademi K. Sohrabi S.R. Karimian R. and Beiranvand R. (2007). Investigation on the effect of light on the survival of pistachio seedlings in Lorestan province. Research Project Report Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands 66pp.

  • Karimi-Dost A. (2001). An Investigation on the Effect of awning and Seed Origin on Oak Seed in Nursery of Khorasan. Abstract Results of 1200 projects Natural Resources Vol. 1: 501-500.

  • Pierce K. Lookingbill T. and Urban D. (2005). A simple method for estimating potential relative radiation (PRR) for landscape-scale vegetation analysis. Landscape Ecology. 20: 137-147.

  • Laurance W.F. Williamson B.G. Delamonica P. Oliveira A.A. Lovejoy T.E. Gascon C. Pohl L. 2001. Effects of a strong drought on Amazonian forest fragments and edges. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17: 771–785.

  • Lyapova I. and Palashev I. (1982). Growth of Seedling of Platanus orientalisSorbus torminalis and Corylus avelana to Light. Gorsko-Stopanstvo 44(1): 24-25.

  • Mitsuda Y. Ito S. and Sakamoto S. (2007). Predicting the site index of Sugi plantations from GIS-derived environmental factors in Miyazaki Prefecture. Journal of Forest Research. 12(3): 177-186.

  • Molly B. (2010). Environmental correlates of tree species distribution in old-growth forests. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelors of Science. University of Washington

  • Murphy P.G. & Lugo A.E. (1986). Ecology of tropical dry forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17: 67–88.

  • Najafifar A. Hoseinzadeh J. and Pourhashemi M. (2015). The effect of topography and habitat ecological capability in forest dieback in Ilam province. Research Project Report Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands 74p.

  • Najafifar A. Moayeri M.H. Shatai-Joybari Sh and Salman-Mahini A. (2017). The role of hillshade regime on canopy density and evaluation of ecological capability in the Zagros woodlands (Case study: Kabirkooh forest of Badreh city Ilam province). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research Vol. 25 (1): 23-34.

  • Najafifar A. Sagheb-Talebi KH. and Saeb K. (2012). The role of light intensity on survival of Quercus branti saplings in relation to slope aspect and distance from seed trees in Ilam province forests. Journal of Forest and Wood Products 64(4): 1-14 (In Persian).

  • Piedallu Ch. & Gégout J.C. (2007). Multiscale computation of solar radiation for predictive vegetation modelling. Annals of Forest Science DOI : 10.1051/forest 64: 899-909.

  • Sagheb-Talebi Kh. (1995). Study of some characteristics of young beeches in the regeneration gaps of irregular shelterwood (Femelschlag). In: Madsen S.F. Genetics and silviculture of beech. Denmark. Forskingscerien Nr. 11: 105-116.

  • Sagheb-Talebi KH. Pourreza M. Khan Hosni M. (2011). Check oak forest habitat in Kerman province. Scientific – research Iran’s natural ecosystems. 2: 54-57 (In Persian).

  • Sukumar R. Suresh H.S. Dattaraja H.S. Srinidhi S. Nath C. (2005). Dynamics of a tropical dry forest at Mudumalai (India): climate fire elephants and the evolution of life history strategies. In: Burslem D. Pinard M. Hartley S. (Eds.) Biotic Interactions in the Tropics (510–529 p.). Cambridge University Press UK.

  • Suresh H.S. Dattaraja H.S. Sukumar R. (2010). Relationship between annual rainfall and tree mortality in a tropical dry forest: Results of a 19-year study at Mudumalai southern India. Journal of Forest Ecology and Management 259: 762–769.

  • Teymourzadeh A. Akbariniya M. Hosseini S.M. Tabari M. (2003). The effect of shades on survival and growth of Persian oak (Quercus macranthera) Seedlings. Journal of Pajouhesh & Sazandegi 16(4): 12-17.

  • Weinreich A. (2002). Regeneration of oak in Gaps: Comparative Studies of quality and stem-development of young Oaks libel Grown under different light condition. Journal of Ecology 82(2): 227-237.

  • Wise S.M. (2001). Error assessment for digital terrain models. Retrieved September 8 2003 from: http://www.shef. ac.uk/geography/staff/wise_stephen/dtm/dtm.htm.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.45

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.183
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.233

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 91 91 7
PDF Downloads 121 121 22