Landscape structure is determined by human activities and natural processes. Despite both influences are described in many studies, there remains still question, how the landscape structure reflects the individual socio-economic predictors. To answer this question we compared landscape structure, with emphasis on non-forest woody vegetation, of two states, however, with common socio-economic and political history. Non-forest woody vegetation represents characteristic feature in rural landscape, which increases water retention, biodiversity and bio-migration using green structures. In our study we supposed, that non-forest woody vegetation will have high sensitivity to societal changes and nature conservation measures. On an example of border region in former Czechoslovakia we compared three classes of non-forest woody vegetation (solitaires, patches and linear elements) in three time horizons (1950, 1986, 2011). The most significant differences in spatial structure of non-forest woody vegetation between countries were in the number and area of solitaires, which decreased during the entire period. However, the largest solitaire decrease was in 1950-1986, mainly in correspondence with socialist collective farming. Moreover, the decrease was higher in the Slovak part compared to the Czech part. The primary reason for this was the removal of non-forest woody vegetation on one side and the joining crowns into bigger patches on the other side. The current trend of increasing area of patch and linear elements is related to natural succession. We assume that the main drivers of different development in non-forest woody vegetation in the border region after the split of Czechoslovakia were different management measures applied in nature and landscape conservation and social development.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Baran-Zgłobicka B. & Zgłobicki W. (2012). Mosaic landscapes of SE Poland: should we preserve them? Agro. for Syst. 85 351-365.
Barr C.J. & Gillespie M.K. (2000). Estimating hedgerow length and pattern characteristics in Great Britain using Countryside Survey data. J. Environ. Manage. 60 23-32.
Baudry. J. Bunce R.G.H. & Burel F. (2000). Hedgerows: An international perspective on their origin function and management. J. Environ. Manage. 60 7-22.
Bässler C. & Klotz S. (2006). Effects of changes in agricultural land use on landscape structure and arable weed vegetation over the last 50 years. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 115 43-50.
Benčať T. & Jančura P. (2008). The importance and function of woods in landscape character. In T. Benčať P. Jančura & D. Daniš (Eds.) Selected problems of landscape in submountain and mountain areas (5-8 p.) Poniky Publishing of Janka Čižmárová – Partner.
Bíčík I. Jeleček L. & Štěpánek V. (2001). Land use changes and their social driving forces in Czech Republic in the 19th and 20th century. Land Use Policy 18 65-73.
Bulíř. P. & Škorpík M (1987). Scattered greenery in landscape. News from the Research and Breeding Institute for Ornamental Gardening in Průhonice O. P. Sempra Praha.
CORINE Land Cover (2006). Slovak Environmental Agency Slovak Republic 1:50000.
Demková K. & Lipský Z. (2013). Changes in the extent of non-forest woody vegetation in the lowland of Novodvorsko and Žehušicko region (Central Bohemia Czech Republic). AUC Geographica 48 5-13.
Demková K. & Lipský Z. (2015). Changes of non-forest woody vegetation in the southwestern part of White Carpathians between 1949-2011. Geografie 120 64-83.
Fanta J. Zemek F. & Prach K. (2005). Roots of marginalization across a Czech border area and its future landscape perspectives. Non-published report for the concerted action EUROLAN project (QLK5-CT-2002-02346).
FAO (2001). Trees outside the forest: Towards rural and urban integrated resources management. Contribution to the forest resources assessment 2000 report. FAO Forest Conservation Research and Education Service Rome.
Fjellstad W.J. & Dramstad W.E. (1999). Patterns of change in two contrasting Norwegian agricultural landscapes. Landsc. Urban Plan. 45 177-191.
Gibbons P. Lindenmayer D.B. Fischer J. Mening A.D. Weinberg A. Seddon J. Ryan P. & Barrett G. (2008). The future of scattered trees in agricultural landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 22 1309-1319.
Hamre L.N. Domaas S.T. Austad I. & Rydgren K. (2007). Land-cover and structural changes in a western Norwegian cultural landscape since 1865 based on an old cadastral map and a field survey. Landsc. Ecol. 22 1563-1574.
Hunziker M. (1995). The spontaneous reafforestation in abandoned agricultural lands: perception and aesthetic assessment by locals and tourists. Landsc. Urban Plan. 31 399-410.
Ihse M. (1995). Swedish agricultural landscapes – patterns and changes during the last 50 years studied by aerial photos. Landsc. Urban Plan. 31 21-37.
Jongman R.H.G. (2002). Homogenisation and fragmentation of the European landscape: ecological consequences and solutions. Landsc. Urban Plan. 58 211-221.
Jonsson K. Ong C.K. & Odongo J.C.W. (1999). Influence of scattered nere and karite trees on microclimate soil fertility and millet yield in Burkina Faso. Exp. Agr. 35 39-53.
Kümmerle T. Radeloff V.C. Perzanowski K. & Hostert P. (2006). Cross-border comparison of land cover and landscape pattern in Eastern Europe using a hybrid classification technique. Remote Sens. Environ. 103 449-464.
Kümmerle T. Hostert P. Radeloff V.C. Perzanowski K. & Kruhlov I. (2008). Cross-border comparison of post-socialist farmland abandonment in the Carpathians. Ecosystems 11 614-628.
Kümmerle T. Müller D. Griffiths P. & Rusu M. (2009). Land use change in Southern Romania after the collapse of socialism. Reg. Environ. Change 9 1-12.
Lieskovský J. Kenderessy P. Špulerová J. Lieskovský T. Koleda P. Kienast F. & Gimmi U. (2014). Factors affecting the persistence of traditional agricultural landscapes in Slovakia during collectivization of agriculture. Landsc. Ecol. 29 867-877.
Lieskovský J. Bezák P. Špulerová J. Lieskovský T. Koleda P. Dobrovodská M. Bürgi M. & Gimmi U. (2015). The abandonment of traditional agricultural landscape in Slovakia – Analysis of extent and driving forces. J. Rural Stud. 37 75-84.
Lipský Z. (1995). Changing face of Czech rural landscape. Landsc. Urban Plan. 31 39-45.
MacDonald D. Crabtree J.R. Wiesinger G. Dax T. Stamou N. Fleury P. Gutierrez Lazpita J. & Gibon A. (2000). Agricultural abandonment of mountain areas in Europe: Environmental consequences and policy response. J. Environ. Manage. 59 47-69.
Manning A.D. Fischer J. & Lindenmayer D.B. (2006). Scattered trees are keystone structures – implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 132 311-321.
McCollin D. Jackson J.I. Bunce R.G.H. Barr C.J. & Stuart R. (2000). Hedgerows as habitat for woodland plants. J. Environ. Manage. 60 77-99.
McGarigal K. Marks B.J. Holmes C. & Ene E. (2002). Fragstats 3.3 [computer software]. Retrieved September 8 2003 from http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/downloads/fragstats_downloads.html
Mertanová S. Rajcová K. & Jánský P. (2010). Providing adequate grassland management in Slovakia – case studies from the Biele Karpaty Mts. Proceedings of the 7th European Dry Grassland Meeting: Succession restoration and management of dry grasslands p. 46.
Mojsej M. & Petrovič F. (2013). Land use changes of historical structures in the agricultural landscape at the local level – Hriňová case study. Ekol. Bratislava 32 1-12.
Müller D. Leitão P.J. & Sikor T. (2013). Comparing the determinants of cropland abandonment in Albania and Romania using boosted regression trees. Agric. Syst. 117 66-77.
Plieninger T. Pulido F.J. & Schaich H. (2004). Effects of land-use and landscape structure on holm oak recruitment and regeneration at farm level in Quercus ilex L. dehesas. J. Arid Environ. 57 345-364.
Plieninger T. Höchtl F. & Spek T. (2006). Traditional land-use and nature conservation in European rural landscapes. Environ. Sci. Policy 9 317-321.
Primdahl J. Kristensen L. & Swaffield S. (2013). Guiding rural landscape change. Current policy approaches and potentials of Landscape strategy making as a policy integrating approach. Appl. Geogr. 42 86-94.
Rempel R.S. Kaukinen D. & Carr A.P. (2012). PatchAnalyst and PatchGrid. ThunderBay Ontario: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Centre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research.
Sanchez I.A. Lassaletta L. McCollin D. & Bunce R.G.H. (2010). The effect of hedgerow loss on microclimate in the Mediterranean region: an investigation in Central Spain. Agro. for Syst. 78 13-25.
Skaloš J. & Engstová E. (2010). Methodology for mapping non-forest wood elements using historic cadastral maps and aerial photograps as a basis for management. J. Environ. Manage. 91 831-843.
Sklenička P. Molnárová K. Brabec E. Kumble P. Pittnerová B. Pixová K. & Šálek M. (2009). Remnants of medieval field patterns in the Czech Republic: Analysis of driving forces behind their disappearance with special attention to the role of hedgerows. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 129 465-473.
Sláviková D. (1984). The importance of forest and scattered greenery in landscape design. Zvolen: University of Forestry and Wood Sciences.
Supuka J. Schlampová T. & Jančura P. (1999). Landscape design. Zvolen: Technical University.
Špička J. (2009). Farming under environmental conditions in the Beskyds and White Carpathians. Agric. Econ. – Czech 55 459-466.
Takács-György K. Bandlerova A. & Sadowski A. (2007). Land Use and Land Reform in Former Central and East European Countries. European Association of Agricultural Economists 104thSeminar Corvinus University of Budapest pp. 1-13.
terBraak C.J.F. & Šmilauer P. (2012). Canoco reference manual and user’s guide: software for ordination (version 5.0) [computer software]. Ithaca NY USA: Microcomputer Power.
Turnock D. (2002). Ecoregion-based conservation in the Carpathians and the land-use implications. Land Use Policy 19 47-63.
Van Eetvelde V. & Antrop M. (2004). Analyzing structural and functional changes of traditional landscape – two examples from Southern France. Landsc. Urban Plan. 67 79-95.
van Zanten B.T. Verbung P.H. Espinosa M. et al (2014). European agricultural landscapes common agricultural policy and ekosystém services: a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 34 309-325.
Young J. Richards C. Fischer A. Halada Ľ. Kull T. Kuzniar A. Tartes U. Uzunov Y. & Watt A. (2007). Conflicts between biodiversity conservation and human activities in the central and eastern European countries. Ambio 36 545-5.
Czech Environmental Information Agency (CENIA) (2010). Present and historical aerial photographs available. Retrieved December 15 2011 from http://geoportal.cenia.cz
Czech Statistical office. Retrieved January 15 2014 from http://czso.cz
Database of long-term changes in land use of the Czech Republic 1845-2000. Retrieved April 20 2014 from http://lucc.ic.cz
Statistical office of the Slovak Republic. Retrieved January 30 2014 from http://slovak.statistics.sk