Land Use and Landscape Pattern Changes on the Inside and Outside of Protected Areas in Urbanizing Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysia

Open access

Abstract

Unabated land use changes in developing countries have imperilled the urban ecosystem resilience. An urban protected area is one of the critical systems to absorb disturbance regimes in the metropolitan area, but it is increasingly pressured by urbanization. Therefore, assessing their land use and landscape pattern changes are pivotal to identify the conservation capacity. We developed land use maps for Klang Gate, Bukit Kutu, and Sungai Dusun wildlife reserves to assess their spatial and temporal land use changes between 1988 and 2012. The degree of fragmentation, the intensity of human impact and structural connectedness for these wildlife reserves were also quantified. The findings revealed that Klang Gate which located adjacent to the highly urbanizing area experienced a very significant loss of forest while built-up area and commercial agriculture gradually encroached into the reserve. It also has a higher degree of fragmentation and human impact than the other two reserves. Human impact inside of Klang Gate was concomitant to the outside. However, Bukit Kutu almost undisturbed and Sungai Dusun was slightly intruded by commercial agriculture. The results help different stakeholders, such as managing authorities and policy planners to strategize new land use planning that utilize limited land-based resources for future economic and social development. As the findings showed that urban protected areas alone are not sufficient in maintaining the urban ecosystem; therefore new conservation planning that integrates other urban green spaces at their surrounding is critical to ameliorating the conservation on a long-term basis.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abdullah S. A. & Hezri A. A. (2008). From forest landscape to agricultural landscape in the developing tropical country of Malaysia: Pattern process and their significance on policy. Environmental Management 42 907-917. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-008-9178-3.

  • Adila N. Sasidhran S. Kamarudin N. Puan C. L. Azhar B. & Lindenmayer D. B. (2017). Effects of peat swamp logging and agricultural expansion onspecies richness of native mammals in Peninsular Malaysia. Basic and Applied Ecology 22 1-10.

  • Ahmad A. H. Payne J. & Zainuddin Z. Z. (2013). Preventing the extinction of the Sumatran rhinoceros. Journal of Indonesian Natural History 1 11-22.

  • Alberti M. & Marzluff J. M. (2004). Ecological resilience in urban ecosystems: Linking urban patterns to human and ecological functions. Urban Ecosystems 7 241-265.

  • Andren H. (1994). Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos 71(3) 355-366.

  • Asensio N. Arroyo-Rodriguez V. Dunn J. C. & Crisobal-Azkarate J. (2009). Conservation value of landscape supplementation for howler monkeys living in forest patches. Biotropica 41: 768-773. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00533.x.

  • Bailey K. M. Mccleery R. A. Binford M. W. Zweig C. (2016). Land-cover change within and around protected areas in a biodiversity hotspot. Journal of Land Use Science 11(2) 154-176.

  • Blair R. (2004). The effects of urban sprawl on birds at multiple levels of biological organization. Ecology and Society 9(5) 2.

  • Bogaert J. Barima Y. S. S. Mongo W. Bamba I. Mama A. Toyi M. & Lafortezza R. (2011). Forest Fragmentation: Causes Ecological Impacts and Implications for Landscape Management. In C. Li R. Lafortezza & J. Chen (Eds.) Landscape Ecology in Forest Management and Conservation (pp. 273-296). New York: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  • Bunnell T. & Barter P. A. (2002). Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area. Cities 19(5) 357-370.

  • Butchart S. H. M. Scharlemann J. P. W. Evans M. I. Quader S. Aricò S. Arinaitwe J. Balman M. Bennun L. A. Bertzky B. Besançon C. Boucher T. M. Brooks T. M. Burfield I. J. Burgess N. D. Chan S. Clay R. P. Crosby M. J. Davidson N. C. De Silva N. Devenish C. Dutson G. C. L. Fernández D. D. F. Fishpool L. D. C. Fitzgerald C. Foster M. Heath M. F. Hockings M. Hoffmann M. Knox D. Larsen F.W. Lamoreux J. F. Loucks C. May I. Millett J. Molloy D. Morling P. Parr M. Ricketts T. H. Seddon N. Skolnik B. Stuart S. N. Upgren A. & Woodley S. (2012). Protecting important sites for biodiversity contributes to meeting global conservation targets. PLoS ONE 7(3) e32529. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032529.

  • Butt A. Shabbir R. Ahmad S. S. & Aziz N. (2015). Land use change mapping and analysis using remote sensing and GIS: A case study of Simly watershed Islamabad Pakistan. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 18(2) 251-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrs.2015.07.003.

  • Castro-prieto J. Martinuzzi S. Radeloff V. C. Helmers D. P. Quiñones M. & Gould W. A. (2017). Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico. Biological Conservation 209 473-481.

  • Clay E. Moreno-Sanchez R. Torres-Rojo J. M. & Moreno-Sanchez F. (2016). National assessment of the fragmentation levels and fragmentation-class transitions of the forests in Mexico for 2002 2008 and 2013. Forests 7(3) 6-8. https://doi.org/10.3390/f7030048.

  • Cohen J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement 20(1) 37-46.

  • Colding J. (2007). “Ecological land-use complementation” for building resilience in urban ecosystems. Landscape and Urban Planning 81 46-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2006.10.016.

  • Cumming G. S. Barnes G. Perz S. Schmink M. Sieving K. E. Southworth J. Binford M. Holt R. D. Stickler C. & Van Holt T. (2005). An exploratory framework for the empirical measurement of resilience. Ecosystems 8 975-987.

  • Cumming G. S. (2016). The relevance and resilience of protected areas in the Anthropocene. Anthropocene 13 46-56.

  • Defries R. Hansen A. Turner B. L. Reid R. & Liu J. (2007). Land use change around protected areas: management to balance human needs and ecological function. Ecological Function 17(4) 1031-1038. https://doi.org/10.1890/05-1111.

  • Dudley N. & Stolton S. (2008). Defining protected areas: An international conference in Almeria Spain Mayo 2007. Gland Switzerland: IUCN.

  • DWNP. (2004). Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve Development and Management Plan. Kuala Lumpur: UPM & DWNP.

  • Eastman J. R. (2001). Idrisi 32 Release 2 Guide to GIS and Image Processing Volume 1. Worcester: Clark University (Vol. 1). Worcester MA: Clark University.

  • ERDAS Inc. (1999). ERDAS Field Guide. 5th edition. Atlanta Georgia: ERDAS ® Inc.

  • Estevo C. A. Nagy-reis M. B. & Silva W. R. (2017). Urban parks can maintain minimal resilience for Neotropical bird communities. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 27 84-89.

  • Estreguil C. & Mouton C. (2009). Measuring and reporting on forest landscape pattern fragmentation and connectivity in Europe: methods and indicators. Italy: JRC Scientific and Technical Reports Office for Official pp 7–8.

  • European Commission. (2019). GuidosToolbox (GTB). Retrieved December 20 2017 from https://forest.jrc.ec.europa.eu/en/activities/lpa/gtb/.

  • Fahrig L. (2003). Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 34 487-515. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132419.

  • Fu B. J. Hu C. X. Chen L. D. Honnay O. & Gulinck H. (2006). Evaluating change in agricultural landscape pattern between 1980 and 2000 in the Loess hilly region of Ansai County China. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 114 387-396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.11.012.

  • Gallant A. L. Loveland T. R. Sohl T. L. & Napton D. E. (2004). Using an ecoregion framework to analyze land-cover and land-use dynamics. Environmental Management34(S1) S89-S110.

  • Hansen A. J. Knight R. L. Marzluff J. M. Powell S. Brown K. Gude P. H. & Jones K. (2005). Effects of exurban development on biodiversity: patterns mechanisms and research needs. Ecological Applications 15(6) 1893-1905.

  • Hansen A. J. & Defries R. (2007a). Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands. Ecological Applications 17 974-988.

  • Hansen A. J. & Defries R. (2007b). Land use change around nature reserves: implications for sustaining biodiversity. Ecological Applications 17(4) 972-973.

  • Hassan M. M. (2017). Monitoring land use/land cover change urban growth dynamics and landscape pattern analysis in five fastest urbanized cities in Bangladesh. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment 7 69-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rsase.2017.07.001.

  • Havmøller R.G. Payne J. Ramono W. Ellis S. Yoganand K. Long B. Dinerstein E. Williams A.C. Putra R.H. Gawi J. Talukdar B.K. & Burgess N. 2015. Will current conservation responses save the critically endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis? Oryx 50 1-5.

  • Heller N. E. & Zavaleta E. S. (2009). Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: a review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation 142 14-32.

  • Hill J. K. Gray M. A Khen C. V. Benedick S. Tawatao N. & Hamer K. C. (2011). Ecological impacts of tropical forest fragmentation: how consistent are patterns in species richness and nestedness? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biological Sciences 366 3265-3276. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0050.

  • Ho C. S. (2008). Urban governance and rapid urbanization issues in Malaysia. Jurnal Alam Bina 13(4) 1-24.

  • Holling C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4 1-23.

  • Islam K. Jashimuddin M. Nath B. & Nath T. K. (2018). Land use classification and change detection by using multi-temporal remotely sensed imagery: The case of Chunati wildlife sanctuary Bangladesh. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 2 37-47.

  • IUCN. (2005). Benefits Beyond Boundaries. Proceedings of the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress. Gland Switzerland and Cambridge UK: IUCN.

  • Landis J. R. & Koch G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 33(1) 159-174.

  • Lee W. H. & Abdullah S. A. (2019). Framework to develop a consolidated index model to evaluate the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. Ecological Indicators 102 131-144.

  • Leroux S. J. & Kerr J. T. (2012). Land development in and around protected areas at the wilderness frontier. Conservation Biology 27(1) 166-176. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01953.x.

  • Lim B. L. Majid R. A. & Norsham Y. (1999). Studies on the mammal fauna of Bukit Kutu Wildlife Reserve Hulu Selangor. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 17 1 – 16.

  • Lynam A. J. (2010). Securing a future for wild Indochinese tigers: transforming tiger vacuums into tiger source sites. Integrative Zoology 5 324-334.

  • Martinuzzi S. Radeloff V. C. Joppa L. N. Hamilton C. M. Helmers D. P. Plantinga A. J. & Lewis D. J. (2015). Scenarios of future land use change around United States’ protected areas. Biological Conservation 184 446-455.

  • Mascia M. B. Pailler S. Krithivasan R. Roshchanka V. Burns D. Mlotha M. J. Murray D. R. & Peng N. (2014). Protected area downgrading downsizing and degazettement (PADDD) in Africa Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean 1900–2010. Biological Conservation 169 355-361.

  • Masron T. Yaakob U. Ayob N. M. & Mokhtar A. S. (2012). Population and spatial distribution of urbanisation in Peninsular Malaysia 1957 - 2000. Geografia: Malaysia Journal of Society and Space 8(2) 20-29.

  • Mazaris A. D. Papanikolaou A. D. Barbet-Massin M. Kallimanis A. S. Jiguet F. Schmeller D. S. & Pantis J. D. (2013). Evaluating the connectivity of a protected areas’ network under the prism of global change: the efficiency of the European Natura 2000 network for four birds of prey. PLoS One 8 e59640.

  • Mcdonald R. I. Kareiva P. & Forman R. T. T. (2008). The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 141 1695-1703.

  • Mcdonald R. I. Forman R. T. T. Kareiva P. Neugarten R. Salzer D. & Fisher J. (2009). Urban effects distance and protected areas in an urbanizing world. Landscape and Urban Planning 93 63-75.

  • McDonnell M. J. & Stiles E. W. (1983). The structural complexity of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird-dispersed plant species. Oecologia 56 109-116.

  • Mckinney M. L. (2002). Urbanization biodiversity and conservation. BioScience 52(10) 883-890.

  • Mcpherson E. G. Grimmond S. U. E. & Souch C. (1997). Quantifying urban forest structure function and value: the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. Urban Ecosystems 1 49-61.

  • Olaniyi A. O. Abdullah A. M. Ramli M. F. & Soods A. M. 2013. Agricultural land use in Malaysia: an historical overview and implications for food security. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 19(1) 60-69.

  • Pattanavibool A. & Dearden P. (2002). Fragmentation and wildlife in montane evergreen forests northern Thailand. Biological Conservation 107 155-164.

  • Perumal B. (1992). Management survey of Klang Gates Wildlife Sanctuary. Petaling Jaya: WWF Malaysia.

  • Pfeifer M. Lefebvre V. Peres C. A. Banks-Leite C. Wearn O. R. Marsh C. J. Butchart S. H. M. Arroyo-Rodríguez V. Barlow J. Cerezo A. Cisneros L. D’Cruze N. Faria D. Hadley A. Harris S. M. Klingbeil B. T. Kormann U. Lens L. Medina-Rangel G. F. Morante-Filho J. C. Olivier P. Peters S. L. Pidgeon A. Ribeiro D. B. Scherber C. Schneider-Maunoury L. Struebig M. Urbina-Cardona N. Watling J. I. Willig M. R. Wood E. M. & Ewers R. M. (2017). Creation of forest edges has a global impact on forest vertebrates. Nature 551 187-191.

  • Rabinowitz A. (1995). Helping a species go extinct: the Sumatran rhino in Borneo. Conservation Biology 9 482-488.

  • Razak K. A. Mohamad Z. Ibrahim M. Z. Rosle Q. A. AbdWahab M. H. Bakar R. A. & Akib W. A. A. M. (2015). Geospatializing the Klang Gate quartz ridge in Malaysia: a technological perspective. Geophysical Research Abstracts 17 EGU2015-8368.

  • Reza M. I. H. Abdullah S. A. Nor S. M. & Ismail M. H. (2013). Integrating GIS and expert judgment in a multi-criteria analysis to map and develop a habitat suitability index: A case study of large mammals on the Malayan peninsula. Ecological Indicators 34 149–158.

  • Reza M. I. H. (2014). Measuring forest fragmentation in the protected area system of a rapidly developing Southeast Asian tropical region. Science Postprint 1(1) e00030. doi:10.14340/spp.2014.09A0001.

  • Riitters K. H. Wickham J. D. Neill R. V. O. Jones K. B. Smith E. R. Coulston J. W. … Smith J. H. (2002). Fragmentation of continental United States forests. Ecosystems 5 815-822.

  • Rivard D. H. Poitevin J. Plasse D. Carleton M. & David J. (2000). Changing species richness and composition in Canadian National Parks. Conservation Biology 14(4) 1099-1109. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.98247.x.

  • Rüdisser J. Tasser E. & Tappeiner U. (2012). Distance to nature - A new biodiversity relevant environmental indicator set at the landscape level. Ecological Indicators 15 208-216.

  • Rutledge D. (2003). Landscape indices as measures of the effects of fragmentation: can pattern reflect process ? Wellington: Deaprtment of Conservation. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-011-9650-y.

  • Sasidhran S. Adila N. Hamdan M.S. Samantha L.D. Aziz N. Kamarudin N. Chong L.P. Turner E. & Azhar B. 2016. Habitat occupancy patterns and activity rate of native mammals in tropical fragmented peat swamp reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Ecology and Management 363 140-148.

  • Sauders D. A. Hobbs R. J. & Margules C. R. (1991). Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: A review. Conservation Biology 5 18-32.

  • Savard J. L. Clergeau P. & Mennechez G. (2000). Biodiversity concepts and urban ecosystems. Landscape and Urban Planning 48 131-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(00)00037-2.

  • Shaharum N. S. N. Shafri H. Z. M. Gambo J. & Abidin F. A. Z. (2018). Mapping of Krau Wildlife Reserve (KWR) protected area using Landsat 8 and supervised classification algorithms. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment 10 24-35.

  • Sicuriello F. De Nicola C. Dowgiallo G. & Testi A. (2014). Assessing the habitat conservation status by soil parameters and plant ecoindicators. iForest 7 170-177.

  • Soille P. & Vogt P. (2009). Morphological segmentation of binary patterns. Pattern Recognition Letters 30 456-459.

  • Steinhardt U. Herzog F. Lausch A. Müller E. & Lehmann S. (1999). Hemeroby index for landscape monitoring and evaluation. In Y. A. Pykh D. E. Hyatt & R. J. Lenz (Eds.) Environmental Indices - System Analysis Approach (pp. 237-254). Oxford UK: EOLSS Publishers Co. Ltd.

  • Tee S. L. Samantha L. D. Kamarudin N. Akbar Z. Lechner A. Z. Ashton-Butt A. & Azhar B. (2018). Urban forest fragmentation impoverishes native mammalian biodiversity in the tropics. Ecology and Evolution 8 12506-12521.

  • Terra T. N. dos Santos R. F. & Costa D. C. (2014). Land use changes in protected areas and their future: The legal effectiveness of landscape protection. Land Use Policy 38 378-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.12.003.

  • Trzyna T. (2014). Urban Protected Areas: Profiles and best practice guidelines. Gland Switzerland: IUCN.

  • Viera A. J. & Garrett J. M. (2005). Understanding interobserver agreement: The kappa statistic. Family Medicine 37(5) 360-363.

  • Vogt P. (2015). Quantifying landscape fragmentation. In P. de Rosto & D. Catalográficos (Eds.) Anais XVII Simpósio Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto - SBSR João Pessoa-PB Brasil 25 a 29 de abril de 2015 INPE (pp. 1239-1246). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.

  • Walz U. & Stein C. (2014). Indicators of hemeroby for the monitoring of landscapes in Germany. Journal for Nature Conservation 22 279-289.

  • Wei D. Luo Z. Li J. Wang W. & Zhang M. (2015). Assessing the effectiveness of protecting reserves for nature assets in China. Journal of Geographical Sciences 25(4) 417-427.

  • Wickham J. D. Riitters K. H. Wade T. G. & Vogt P. (2010). A national assessment of green infrastructure and change for the conterminous United States using morphological image processing. Landscape and Urban Planning 94 186-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2009.10.003.

  • Wong K. M. Sugumaran M. Lee D. K. P. & Zahid M. S. (2010). Ecological aspects of endemic plant populations on Klang Gates quartz ridge a habitat island in Peninsular Malaysia. Biodiversity and Conservation 19(2) 435-447. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-008-9522-1.

  • Yaakob U. Masron T. & Masami F. (2012). Ninety years of urbanization in Malaysia: A geographical investigation of its trends and characteristics. Journal of Ritsumeikan Social and Humanities 4 79-101.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.45

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.183
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.233

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 165 165 32
PDF Downloads 129 129 35