The paper demonstrates that the British Uplands have been influenced to a great extent by policy - for example, the planting of almost a million hectares of exotic conifers since the Second World War, and the extent of designated areas. Otherwise, climate change transcends policy and is locally important to coastal and high mountain habitats. The different policies affecting the Uplands, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, are described, as are the wide range of designations such as National Parks, which may have a stabilising effect in times of great change. A new trend has started in Scotland in the last 20 years of local initiatives, such as the community ownership of Eigg, however large landowners still dominate. An impact table is presented of the habitats that make up the Uplands and their links to driving forces, with potential changes described that are likely to take place under future policies such as Brexit. Dwarf shrub heath is the habitat affected by many management drivers, whereas habitats such as Inland Rock, are relatively stable but most likely to be affected by climate change.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ackrill R. (2000). Common Agricultural Policy (Vol. 9). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.
Acs S. Hanley N. Dallimer M. Gaston K. J. Robertson P. Wilson P. & Armsworth P. R. (2010). The effect of decoupling on marginal agricultural systems: implications for farm incomes land use and upland ecology. Land Use Policy 27(2) 550-563. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.07.009.
Aldhous J. R. (1997). British forestry: 70 years of achievement. Forestry 70(4) 283-291. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/70.4.283.
Angus S. (2009). Dé tha cearr air a’mhachaire? Biodiversity issues for Scottish machair: an initial appraisal. Glasgow Naturalist 25 53-62.
Barr C. J. (1996). Current status and prospects for key habitats in England. Part 3: Upland landscapes. Grange over Sands: Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions Insititute of Terrestrial Ecology.
Benayas J. R. Martins A. Nicolau J. M. & Schulz J. J. (2007). Abandonment of agricultural land: an overview of drivers and consequences. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture Veterinary Science Nutrition and Natural Resources 2 1-14.
Berry P. Dawson T. Harrison P. & Pearson R. (2002). Modelling potential impacts of climate change on the bioclimatic envelope of species in Britain and Ireland. Global ecology and biogeography 11(6) 453-462. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2002.00304.x.
British Association for Shooting and Conservation (BASC) (2017). Grouse moor management. Rossett: British Association for Shooting and Conservation (BASC).
Bunce R. G. H. Barr C. J. Gillespie M. K. & Howard D. C. (1996). The ITE Land Classification: providing an environmental stratification of Great Britain. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 39 39-46. doi: 10.1007/978-94-009-1653-1_5.
Bunce R. G. H. Wood C. M. & Smart S. M. (2018). The Ecology of British Upland landscapes. I. Composition of landscapes habitats vegetation and species. Journal of Landscape Ecology 11(3) DOI: 10.2478/jlecol-2018-0015.
Bunce R. G. H. Wood C. M. Smart S. M. Oakley R. Browning G. Daniels M. J. Ashmole P. Cresswell J. & Holl K. (2014). The landscape ecological impact of afforestation on the British uplands and some initiatives to restore native woodland cover. Journal of Landscape Ecology 7(2) 5-24. doi: https://doi.org/10.2478/jlecol-2014-0013.
Carey P. D. Wallis S. Chamberlain P. M. Cooper A. Emmett B. A. Maskell L. C. McCann T. Murphy J. Norton L. R. Reynolds B. Scott W. A. Simpson I. C. Smart S. M. & Ullyett J. M. (2008). Countryside Survey: UK Results from 2007. Lancaster: NERC/Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.
Davies G. M. Kettridge N. Stoof C. R. Gray A. Ascoli D. Fernandes P. M. Marrs R. Allen K. A. Doerr S. H. & Clay G. D. (2016). The role of fire in UK peatland and moorland management: the need for informed unbiased debate. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371(1696) 20150342. doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0342.
DEFRA. (2018). Health and harmony: The future for food farming and the environment in a Green Brexit. Retrieved December 18 2018 from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-future-for-food-farming-and-the-environment-policy-statement-2018/health-and-harmony-the-future-for-food-farming-and-the-environment-in-a-green-brexit-policystatement.
Evans D. Morrison-Bell C. McCracken D. & Thompson D. (2017). The Uplands: Onwards and Upwards. BES Bulletin 48(4) 46-47.
Fennell R. (1997). The common agricultural policy: Continuity and change. Oxford.
Firbank L. G. Smart S. M. Van de Poll H. M. Bunce R. G. H. Hill M. O. Howard D. C. Watkins J. W. & Stark G. J. (2000). Causes of change in British vegetation (ECOFACT volume 3): Merlewood: Institute of Terrestrial Ecology.
Forest Research. (2018). Timber Price Indices. Retrieved October 16 2018 from https://www.forestresearch.gov.uk/tools-and-resources/statistics/statistics-by-topic/timber-statistics/timber-price-indices/.
Gallego-Sala A. V. Clark J. M. House J. I. Orr H. G. Prentice I. C. Smith P. Farewell T. & Chapman S. J. (2010). Bioclimatic envelope model of climate change impacts on blanket peatland distribution in Great Britain. Climate Research 45 151-162. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/cr00911.
Grabherr G. Gottfried M. & Pauli H. (2010). Climate change impacts in alpine environments. Geography Compass 4(8) 1133-1153. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8198.2010.00356.x.
Grant M. Mallard J. Leigh S. & Thompson P. S. (2012). The costs and benefits of grouse moor management to biodiversity and aspects of the wider environment: a review. Sandy UK: RSPB.
Griffith G. (2011). Deer Management in the UK. Wykey Shropshire UK: Quiller Publishing Ltd.
Harrabin R. (2017). Offshore wind power cheaper than new nuclear. Retrieved October 19 2018 from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-41220948.
Hill M. O. Evans D. F. & Bell S. A. (1992). Long-Term Effects of Excluding Sheep from Hill Pastures in North Wales. Journal of Ecology 80(1) 1-13. doi: 10.2307/2261058.
House J. I. Orr H. G. Clark J. M. Gallego-Sala A. V. Freeman C. Prentice I. C. & Smith P. (2010). Climate change and the British Uplands: evidence for decision-making. Climate Research 45 3-12. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/cr00982.
Jackson D. (2000). Guidance on the Interpretation of the Biodiversity Broad Habitat Classification (Terrestrial and Freshwater Types): Definitions and the Relationship with Other Habitat Classifications (JNCC Report No 307) (Vol. Report no. 307 pp. 73pp). Published online http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-2433:JNCC.
Jacobsen M. & Delucchi M. (2011). Providing all global energy with wind water and solar power Part I: Technologies energy resources quantities and areas of infrastructure and materials. Energy Policy 39 1154-1169. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.11.040.
Knudsen A.-C. L. (2009). Farmers on welfare: the making of Europe’s common agricultural policy: Cornell University Press.
Lund H. & Münster E. (2006). Integrated energy systems and local energy markets. Energy Policy 34(10) 1152-1160. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2004.10.004.
Malcolm G. & Maxwell A. (2018). Grouse and Grouse Moors. London: A. and C. Black. Monbiot G. (2013). Feral: searching for enchantment on the frontiers of rewilding: Penguin UK.
Norton L. R. Maskell L. C. Smart S. M. Dunbar M. J. Emmett B. A. Carey P. D. Williams P. Crowe A. Chandler K. Scott W. A. & Wood C. M. (2012). Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy: key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey. Journal of Environmental Management 113 117-127. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.07.030.
Ostle N. Levy P. Evans C. & Smith P. (2009). UK land use and soil carbon sequestration. Land Use Policy 26 S274-S283. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.08.006.
Petit S. & Elbersen B. (2006). Assessing the risk of impact of farming intensification on calcareous grasslands in Europe: a quantitative implementation of the MIRABEL framework. Ambio 297-303. doi: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4315741.
Petit S. Firbank L. Wyatt B. & Howard D. (2001). MIRABEL: models for integrated review and assessment of biodiversity in European landscapes. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 30(2) 81-88. doi: https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-30.2.81.
Pettorelli N. Barlow J. Stephens P. A. Durant S. M. Connor B. Schulte to Bühne H. Sandom C. J. Wentworth J. & Toit J. T. (2018). Making rewilding fit for policy. Journal of Applied Ecology 55(3) 1114-1125. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13082.
Potter L. (2014). Deer Stalking and Management. Marlborough The Crowood Press Ltd.
Quinn B. (2018). Campaigners fight zip wire plan for Lake District beauty spot. The Guardian. Retrieved December 18 2018 from https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/jan/07/campaigners-zip-wire-lake-district-environmental-thirlmere-reservoir-attraction.
Reynolds B. & Edwards A. (1995). Factors influencing dissolved nitrogen concentrations and loadings in upland streams of the UK. Agricultural water management 27(3-4) 181-202. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3774(95)01146-A.
Robinson M. (1986). Changes in catchment runoff following drainage and afforestation. Journal of Hydrology 86(1–2) 71-84. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(86)90007-7.
Saidur R. Rahim N. Islam M. & Solangi K. (2011). Environmental impact of wind energy. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews 15(5) 2423-2430. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.02.024.
Sandercock B. K. & Martin K. (2011). Ecology Conservation and Management of Grouse: Published for the Cooper Ornithological Society: Univ of California Press.
Scottish Government (2016). Getting The Best From Our Land: A Land Use Strategy For Scotland 2016 - 2021. Retrieved October 17 2018 from https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/03/5773/4.
Scottish Natural Heritage (2016). Scoping a strategic vision for the uplands - Scottish Natural Heritage. Edinburgh: Scottish Natural Heritage.
Silcock P. Brunyee J. & Pring J. (2012). Changing livestock numbers in the UK Less Favoured Areas - an analysis of likely biodiversity implications. Sandy: Final Report prepared for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
Smart S. Ashmore M. Hornung M. Scott W. Fowler D. Dragosits U. Howard D. Sutton M. & Famulari D. (2005). Detecting the signal of atmospheric N deposition in recent national-scale vegetation change across Britain. Water Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 4(6) 269-278. doi: 10.1007/s11267-005-3037-5.
Soule M. & Noss R. (1998). Rewilding and biodiversity: complementary goals for continental conservation. Wild Earth 8 18-28.
Vickery J. Tallowin J. Feber R. Asteraki E. Atkinson P. Fuller R. & Brown V. (2001). The management of lowland neutral grasslands in Britain: effects of agricultural practices on birds and their food resources. Journal of Applied Ecology 38(3) 647-664. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2001.00626.x.
Wood C. M. & Bunce R. G. H. (2016). Survey of the terrestrial habitats and vegetation of Shetland 1974 – a framework for long-term ecological monitoring. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 8(1) 89-103. doi: 10.5194/essd-8-89-2016.