Wound healing is a complex restorative process of the altered cutaneous tissue, which is impaired by numerous local and systemic factors, leading to chronic non-healing lesions with few efficient therapeutic options. Stem cells possess the capacity to differentiate into various types of cell lines. Furthermore, stem cells are able to secrete cytokines and growth factors, modulating inflammation and ultimately leading to angiogenesis, fibrogenesis, and epithelization. Because of their paracrine activity, these cells are able to attract other cell types to the base of the wound, improving the formation of new skin layers. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from the adipose tissue, bone marrow, and placenta, offer numerous ways of implementation. The process of harvesting, growing, and administrating stem cells depends on the site and type of the cells, but recent trial results showed improvement of wound healing independent of the administration site. Bioengineered skin substitutes are validated for treatment of chronic wounds with direct application on the skin surface. These offer physical scaffolding for the migrating cells and promote secretion of growth factors, thus facilitating rapid wound healing. Obtaining further clinical data is essential, but stem cell therapy may become a first-line therapeutic choice for the treatment of non-healing chronic wounds.
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