Background: The number of studies on oral complications in children with Down syndrome is substantial, but they are focused rather on the prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease, and hypodontia. The relationship between Down syndrome and dental eruption has been rarely approached. The causes of delayed eruption in children with Down syndrome are incompletely elucidated due to the incomplete identification of the factors that intervene in the physiological process of dental eruption.
Aim of the study: To evaluate the correlation between Down syndrome and the delayed eruption of permanent teeth, in relation to the chronological age, in this category of patients.
Material and methods: The study group included 94 children with mixed dentition, of ages between 6 and 12 years: 36 children with Down syndrome and 58 healthy children. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed, focusing on the relation between dental age and chronological age.
Results: The presence of Down syndrome in children has a significant influence (p <0.001) on the delayed eruption of permanent teeth, considering the chronological age, compared to healthy children. The weighted average of this delay in our study group was 1.27.
Conclusions: It is necessary to monitor children with Down syndrome for an extended period of time, in order to ensure a high quality of life and to optimize their health as much as possible.
1. Mathias MF, Simionato MRL, Guaré RO. Some factors associated with dental caries in the primary dentition of children with Down syndrome. Eur J Paed Dent. 2011;12:37-42.
2. Gumes de Faria F, Andrade Lauria R. Dental and skeletal characteristics of patients with Down Syndrome. Rev Gaúcha Odonto. 2013;61:121-112.
3. Al-Maweri SA, Tarakji B. Lip and oral lesions in children with Down syndrome. A controlled study. J Clin Exp Dent. 2015;7:284-228.
4. Saponaro PC, Deguchi T. Implant therapy for a patient with Down syndrome and oral habits: A clinical report. J Prosthetic Dentistry. 2016;116:320-332.
5. Meaney S, Anweigi L, Ziada H, Allen F. The impact of hypodontia: a qualitative study on the experiences of patients. Eur J Orthod. 2012;34:547-552.
6. Ondarza A, Jara L, Muñoz P, Blanco R. Sequence of eruption of deciduous dentition in a Chilean sample with Down’s syndrome. Arch Oral Biol. 1997;42:401-406.
7. Leroy R, Cecere S, Lesaffre E, Declerck D. Caries experience in primary molars and its impact on the variability in permanent tooth emergence sequence. J Dentistry. 2009;37:865-871.
8. Jara L, Ondarza A, Blanco R, Valenzuela C. The sequence of eruption of the permanent dentition in a Chilean sample with Down’s syndrome. Arch Oral Biol. 1993;38:85-89.
9. Ghadah A. Oral hygiene and gingival health status of children with Down syndrome in Yemen: A cross-sectional study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2014;4:82-86.
10. Bica C, Drașovean A, Chinceșean M, Eșian D. Permanent teeth emergence in children related to caries experience and malignancies. Medicine in Evolution. 2013;XIX:550-555.
11. Asokan S, Muthu MS. Oral findings of Down syndrome children in Chennai city, India. Indian J Dent Research. 2008;9:230-235.
12. Diz P, Limere J. Correlation between dental maturation and chronological age in patients with cerebral palsy, mental retardation and Down syndrome. Research Developmental Disabilities. 2011;32:808-817.
13. Leroy R, Cecere S, Lesaffre E, Declerck D. Variability in permanent tooth emergence sequences in Flemish children. Eur J Oral Science. 2008;116:11-17.