Since the introduction of the new concepts of plaque vulnerability and patient vulnerability, many researchers have focused on different biomarkers that can represent predictors for coronary plaque instability. One of the features that characterize the vulnerable coronary plaque is positive remodeling, which can be easily identified by computed tomography angiography, a noninvasive procedure, or by other invasive methods such as intravascular ultrasound. This review aims to describe the assessment of positive remodeling as a marker of coronary plaque instability and the differences between computed tomography angiography and intravascular ultrasound in investigating this new biomarker.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. World Health Organization Cardiovascular disease (CVDs) 2016. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/#.
2. Finn AV Nakano M Narula J Kolodgie FD Virmani R. Concept of vulnerable/unstable plaque. Arteriosclerosis thrombosis and vascular biology. 2010;30:1282-1292.
3. Davies MJ Thomas A. Thrombosis and acute coronary-artery lesions in sudden cardiac ischemic death. N Engl J Med. 1984;310:1137-1140.
4. Davies MJ. Stability and instability: two faces of coronary atherosclerosis: the Paul Dudley White Lecture 1995. Circulation. 1996;94:2013-2020.
5. Glagov S Weisenberg E Zarins CK Stankunavicius R Kolettis GJ. Compensatory enlargement of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:1371-1375.
6. Virmani R Kolodgie FD Burke AP Farb A Schwartz SM. Lessons from sudden coronary death: a comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:1262-1275.
7. Falk E Nakano M Bentzon JF Finn AV Virmani R. Update on acute coronary syndromes: the pathologists’ view. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:719-728.
8. Kolodgie FD Virmani R Burke AP et al. Pathologic assessment of the vulnerable human coronary plaque. Heart. 2004;90:1385-1391.
9. Davies MJ Thomas A. Thrombosis and acute coronary-artery lesions in sudden cardiac ischemic death. N Engl J Med. 1984;310:1137-1140.
10. Burke AP Kolodgie FD Farb A Weber D Virmani R. Morphological predictors of arterial remodeling in coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2002;105:297-303.
11. Achenbach S Ropers D Hoffmann U et al. Assessment of coronary remodeling in stenotic and nonstenotic coronary atherosclerotic lesions by multidetector spiral computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:842-847.
12. Motoyama S Kondo T Sarai M et al. Multislice computed tomographic characteristics of coronary lesions in acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:319-326.
13. Motoyama S Sarai M Harigaya H et al. Computed tomographic angiography characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques subsequently resulting in acute coronary syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:49-57.
14. Kröner ES van Velzen JE Boogers MJ et al. Positive remodeling on coronary computed tomography as a marker for plaque vulnerability on virtual histology intravascular ultrasound. The American Journal of Cardiology. 2011;15;107:1725-1729.
15. Fuster V Moreno PR Fayad ZA Corti R Badimon JJ. Atherothrombosis and high-risk plaque: part I: Evolving concepts. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:937-954.
16. Fuster V Fayad ZA Moreno PR Poon M Corti R Badimon JJ. Atherothrombosis and high-risk plaque: part II: Approaches by noninvasive computed tomographic/magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:1209-1218.
17. Schmid M Pflederer T Jang IK et al. Relationship between degree of remodeling and CT attenuation of plaque in coronary atherosclerotic lesions: an in-vivo analysis by multi-detector computed tomography. Atherosclerosis. 2008;197:457-464.
18. Nissen SE De Franco AC Tuzcu EM Moliterno DJ. Coronary intravascular ultrasound: diagnostic and interventional applications. Coron Artery Dis. 1995;6:355-67.
19. Yamagishi M Terashima M Awano K Kijima M Nakatani S. Morphology of vulnerable coronary plaque: insights from follow-up of patients examined by intravascular ultrasound before an acute coronary syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;31;35:106-111.
20. Raffel OC Merchant FM Tearney GJ et al. In vivo association between positive coronary artery remodelling and coronary plaque characteristics assessed by intravascular optical coherence tomography. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:1721-1728.