Predictors of Left Ventricular Remodeling after Revascularized Acute Myocardial Infarction

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Abstract

Background: The acute loss of myocardium, following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) leads to an abrupt increase in the loading conditions that induces a pattern of left ventricular remodeling (LVR). It has been shown that remodeling occurs rapidly and progressively within weeks after the AMI.

Study aim: The aim of our study was to identify predictors for LVR, and find correlations between them and the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors that lead to remodeling.

Material and methods: One hundred and five AMI patients who underwent primary PCI were included in the study. A 2-D echocardiography was performed at baseline (day 1 ± 3 post-MI) and at 6 months follow-up. The LV remodeling index (RI), was defined as the difference between the Left Ventricular End-Diastolic diameter (LVEDD) at 6 months and at baseline. The patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the RI: Group 1 – RI >15% with positive remodeling (n = 23); Group 2 – RI ≤15% with no remodeling (n = 82).

Results: The mean age was 63.26 ± 2.084 years for Group 1 and 59.72 ± 1.267 years for Group 2. The most significant predictor of LVR was the female gender (Group 1 – 52% vs. Group 2 – 18%, p <0.0001). Men younger than 50 years showed a lower rate of LVR (Group1 – 9% vs. Group 2 – 20%, p = 0.0432). In women, age over 65 years was a significant predictor for LVR (Group 1 – 26% vs. Group 2 – 9%, p = 0.0025). The CV risk factors associated with LVR were: smoking (p = 0.0008); obesity (p = 0.013); dyslipidemia (p = 0.1184). The positive remodeling group had a higher rate of LAD stenosis compared to the no-remodeling group (48% vs. 26%, p = 0.002). The presence of multi-vessel disease was shown to be higher in Group 1 (26% vs. 9%, p = 0.0025). The echocardiographic parameters that predicted LVR were: LVEF <45% (p = 0.048), mitral regurgitation (p = 0.022), and interventricular septum hypertrophy (p <0.0001).

Conclusions: The CV risk factors correlated with LVR were smoking, obesity and dyslipidemia. A >50% stenosis in the LAD and the presence of multi-vessel CAD were found to be significant predictors for LVR. The most powerful predictors of LVR following AMI were: LVEF <45%, mitral regurgitation, and interventricular septum hypertrophy.

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