Factors Associated with Development of in Coronary Stent Restenosis — the Results of a Multislice Computed Tomography 1-year Follow-up Study

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Introduction: Percutaneous coronary intervention is the first therapeutic choice in the treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease and Multi-Slice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography (MSCT-CA) is a new non-invasive diagnostic tool in the follow-up of these patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the rate of in-stent restenosis (ISR), to identify the predictive factors for ISR at 1 year after PCI and to assess the progression of non-culprit lesions, using a MSCT-CA follow-up.

Material and methods: The study included 30 patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with one BMS implantation. The patients were divided into Group A (9 patients) presenting ISR and Group B (21 patients) without ISR at 1 year MSCT-CA follow-up.

Results: ISR lesions were mostly localized on the LAD (45%). No significant difference between the study groups was identified for risk factors, as male gender (77.7% vs. 85.71%, p = 0.62), hypertension (88.8% vs. 95.23%, p = 0.51), smoking status (33.3% vs. 72.22%, p = 0.23), history of CVD (55.5% vs. 47.61%, p >0.99), diabetes (11.11% vs. 19.04%, p >0.99), hyperlipidemia (22.22% vs. 52.38%, p = 0.22), CKD (44.44% vs. 14.28%, p = 0.15), age, triglycerides and SYNTAX Score. A significant difference was recorded in baseline cholesterol level (141.7 ± 8.788 vs. 182.8 ± 12; p = 0.029). Ca Score at 1 year was significantly higher in patients with ISR (603.1 ± 529.3 vs. 259.4 ± 354.6; p = 0.005). 66.67% of patients from Group A presented significant non-culprit lesions at baseline vs. 23.81% in Group B (p = 0.041).

Conclusions: MSCT-CA is a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool for ISR in the follow-up of patients who underwent primary PCI for an acute coronary syndrome. The presence of significant non-culprit lesions at the time of the primary PCI could be a predictive factor for ISR. A Ca Score >400 determined at 1-year follow-up is associated with a higher rate of ISR, and could be considered a significant cardiovascular risk factor for this group of patients. Further studies are required in order to elucidate the role of various imaging biomarkers in predicting the development of ISR.

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