The Influence of Project Manager’s Age on Project Success


The world population is aging rapidly. The United Nations listed aging as one of the main social transformations of the twenty-first century. Aging impacts project managers as well. The most prevalent form of discrimination in workplaces is age discrimination. This study evaluated how project managers’ age influences project success. The population was 108 active or former project managers working in Albania or Kosovo. By using quantitative analysis, it was demonstrated that project managers’ age did not significantly predict project success. Therefore, there is a need to increase awareness among employers, so older project managers are not discriminated based on age.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Allen, M., Alleyne, D., Farmer, C., McRae, A., and Turner, C. (2014). A framework for project success. Journal of Information Technology and Economic Development, 5(2), 1-17. Retrieved from

  • Amin, S. and Kamal, Y. (2016). Impact of natural born leader qualities on the project team performance: The influences of demographics (gender and age). International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics, 3, 306-318. Retrieved from

  • Baccarini, D. (1999). The logical framework method for defining project success. Project Management Journal, 30(4), 25-32. Retrieved from

  • Bal, P. M., Kleef, M., and Jansen, P. G. (2015). The impact of career customization on work outcomes: Boundary conditions of manager support and employee age. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 421-440. doi:10.1002/job.1998.

  • Barratt, M. J., Ferris, J. A., and Lenton, S. (2015). Hidden populations, online purposive sampling, and external validity: Taking off the blindfold. Field Methods, 27, 3-21. doi:10.1177/1525822X14526838.

  • Baruch, Y., Grimland, S., and Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2014). Professional vitality and career success: Mediation, age and outcomes. European Management Journal, 32, 518-527. doi:10.1016/j.emj.2013.06.004.

  • Blaskovics, B. (2016). The impact of project manager on project success-The case of ICT sector. Society and Economy in Central and Eastern Europe, 38, 261-281. doi:10.1556/204.2016.38.2.7.

  • Bown-Wilson, D. and Parry, E. (2013). Career progression in older managers. Employee Relations, 35, 309-321. doi:10.1108/01425451311320495.

  • Buengeler, C., Homan, A. C., and Voelpel, S. C. (2016). The challenge of being a young manager: The effects of contingent reward and participative leadership on team-level turnover depend on leader age. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37, 1224-1245. doi:10.1002/job.2101.

  • Chipulu, M., Ojiako, U., Gardiner, P., Williams, T., Mota, C., Maguire, S., … and Marshall, A. (2014). Exploring the impact of cultural values on project performance: The effects of cultural values, age and gender on the perceived importance of project success/failure factors. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 34, 364-389. doi:10.1108/ijopm-04-2012-0156.

  • De Carvalho, M. M. and Junior, R. R. (2014). Impact of risk management on project performance: the importance of soft skills. International Journal of Production Research, 53, 321-340. doi:10.1080/00207543.2014.919423.

  • Ding, S., Jia, C., Qu, B., and Wu, Z. (2015). Corporate risk-taking: Exploring the effects of government affiliation and executives’ incentives. Journal of Business Research, 68, 1196-1204. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.11.014.

  • DuBois, M., Hanlon, J., Koch, J., Nyatuga, B., and Kerr, N. (2015). Leadership styles of effective project managers: Techniques and traits to lead high performance teams. Journal of Economic Development, Management, IT, Finance, and Marketing, 7(1), 30-46. Retrieved from

  • Dulaimi, M. F. and Langford, D. (1999). Job behavior of construction project managers: Determinants and assessment. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 125, 256-264. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1999).

  • Ekrot, B., Kock, A. and Gemünden, H. G. (2016). Retaining project management competence— Antecedents and consequences. International Journal of Project Management, 34(2), 145-157. doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2015.10.010.

  • Fabricius, G. and Büttgen, M. (2015). Project managers’ overconfidence: How is risk reflected in anticipated project success? Business Research, 8, 239-263. doi:10.1007/s40685-015-0022-3.

  • Fernando, N. G., Amaratunga, D., and Haigh, R. (2014). The career advancement of the professional women in the UK construction industry: The career success factors. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 12, 53-70. doi:10.1108/JEDT-04-2012-0018.

  • Fuertes, V., Egdell, V., and McQuaid, R. (2013). Extending working lives: Age management in SMEs. Employee Relations, 35, 272–293. doi:10.1108/01425451311320477.

  • Gentry, J. W. and Mittelstaedt, R. A. (2017). The rapidly aging World: Implications for marketing. Global Business Review, 18(3S), 1S-18S. doi:10.1177/0972150917693136.

  • Hennekam, S. (2015). Career success of older workers: The influence of social skills and continuous learning ability. Journal of Management Development, 34, 1113-1133. doi:10.1108/JMD-05-2014-0047.

  • Hennekam, S. (2016). Competencies of older workers and its influence on career success and job satisfaction. Employee Relations, 38, 130-146. doi:10.1108/ER-05-2014-0054.

  • Higo, M. and Khan, H. T. (2015). Global population aging: Unequal distribution of risks in later life between developed and developing countries. Global Social Policy, 15(2), 146-166. doi:10.1177/1468018114543157.

  • Hofstetter, H. and Cohen, A. (2014). The mediating role of job content plateau on the relationship between work experience characteristics and early retirement and turnover intentions. Personnel Review, 43, 350-376. doi:10.1108/PR-03-2012-0054.

  • Irmen, A. (2017). Capital-and Labor-Saving Technical Change in an Aging Economy. International Economic Review, 58(1), 261-285. doi:10.1111/iere.12216.

  • Jiang, W., Lu, Y., and Le, Y. (2016). Trust and project success: A twofold perspective between owners and contractors. Journal of Management in Engineering, 32, 04016022. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.

  • Koops, L., Bosch-Rekveldt, M., Coman, L., Hertogh, M., and Bakker, H. (2016). Identifying perspectives of public project managers on project success: Comparing viewpoints of managers from five countries in North-West Europe. International Journal of Project Management, 34(5), 874-889.

  • Kremljak, Z., Palcic, I., and Kafol, C. (2014). Project evaluation using cost-time investment simulation. International Journal of Simulation Modelling, 13(4), 447-457. doi:10.2507/IJSIMM13(4)5.279.

  • Kulik, C. T., Ryan, S., Harper, S., and George, G. (2014). Aging populations and management. Academy of Management Journal, 57, 929-935. doi:10.5465/amj.2014.4004.

  • Lain, D. and Loretto, W. (2016). Managing employees beyond age 65: From the margins to the mainstream? Employee Relations, 38, 646-664. doi:10.1108/ER-04-2015-0062.

  • Larsson, J., Eriksson, P. E., Olofsson, T., and Simonsson, P. (2015). Leadership in civil engineering: Effects of project managers’ leadership styles on project performance. Journal of Management in Engineering, 31(6), 04015011. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000367.

  • Lim, C. S. and Mohamed, M. Z. (1999). Criteria of project success: An exploratory re-examination. International Journal of Project Management, 17, 243-248. doi:10.1016/S0263-7863(98)00040-4.

  • Lindebaum, D. and Jordan, P. J. (2012). Relevant but exaggerated: The effects of emotional intelligence on project manager performance in construction. Construction Management and Economics, 30, 575-583. doi:10.1080/01446193.2011.593184.

  • McPeake, J., Bateson, M., and O’Neill, A. (2014). Electronic surveys: How to maximise success. Nurse Researcher, 21(3), 24-26. doi:10.7748/nr2014.

  • Meuleman, B., Langer, A., and Blom, A. G. (2017). Can incentive effects in web surveys be generalized to non-western countries? Conditional and unconditional cash incentives in a web survey of Ghanaian university students. Social Science Computer Review, 36(2), 231-250. doi:10.1177/0894439317699577.

  • Molina-Azorin, J. F., Bergh, D. D., Corley, K. G., and Ketchen, D. J. J. (2017). Mixed methods in the organizational sciences: Taking stock and moving forward. Organizational Research Methods, 20, 179-192. doi:10.1177/1094428116687026.

  • Munns, A. and Bjeirmi, B. (1996). The role of project management in achieving project success. International Journal of Project Management, 14, 81-87. doi:10.1016/0263-7863(95)00057-7.

  • Nguyen, A. P. (2015). Relationship between IT project managers’ emotional intelligence and project success. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. (Order No. 3734008).

  • Ojiako, U., Chipulu, M., Marshall, A., Ashleigh, M., Maguire, S., Williams, T., and Obokoh, L. (2015). Heterogeneity and perception congruence of project outcomes. Production Planning & Control, 26, 858-873. doi:10.1080/09537287.2014.994684.

  • Oshagbemi, T. (2008). The impact of personal and organisational variables on the leadership styles of managers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19, 1896-1910. doi:10.1080/09585190802324130.

  • Park, J. and Park, M. (2016). Qualitative versus quantitative research methods: Discovery or justification. Journal of Marketing Thought, 3(1), 1-7. doi:10.15577/jmt.2016.03.01.1.

  • Pinto, J. K. and Slevin, D. P. (1988). Project success: Definitions and measurement techniques. Project Management Journal, 19(1), 67-72. Retrieved from

  • Radujkovic, M. and Sjekavica, M. (2017). Development of a project management performance enhancement model by analysing risks, changes, and limitations. Gradjevinar, 69, 105-120. doi:10.14256/JCE.1866.2016.

  • Rappaport, A. M. (2015). It is time to revisit public policy and options for older-worker employment. The Journal of Retirement, 2(3), 94-103. doi:10.3905/jor.2015.2.3.094.

  • Rolison, J. J., Hanoch, Y., Wood, S., and Liu, P.-J. (2014). Risk-taking differences across the adult life span: A question of age and domain. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69, 870-880. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbt081.

  • Santos, G. G. (2016). Career barriers influencing career success: A focus on academics’ perceptions and experiences. Career Development International, 21, 60-84. doi:10.1108/CDI-03-2015-0035.

  • Santoso, D. S. and Kulathunga, H. E. R. (2016). Examining happiness: Towards better understanding of performance improvement. Procedia Engineering, 164, 354-361. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.630.

  • Sava Jr, D. C. (2016). The relationship between project managers’ age, gender, and professional experience on career success: A correlation study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University.

  • Schreiber, S. (2015). Leadership and aging workforces: Effects of leader’s relative age on team’s and leader’s effectiveness. Doctoral dissertation, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany. Retrieved from Retrieved from

  • Seboni, L. and Tutesigensi, A. (2015). Project managerto-project allocations in practice: An empirical study of the decision-making practices of a multi-project based organization. Construction Management and Economics, 33, 428-443. doi:10.1080/01446193.2015.1077981.

  • Shenhar, A. J., Levy, O., and Dvir, D. (1997). Mapping the dimensions of project success. Project Management Journal, 28(2), 5-13. Retrieved from

  • Soltani, S., Azadi, H., Hosseini, S. J. F., Witlox, F., and Passel, S. V. (2015). Marketing innovation in rural small food industries in Iran. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 21, 533-551. doi:10.1080/10454446.2015.1041196.

  • Spisak, B. R., Grabo, A. E., Arvey, R. D., and van Vugt, M. (2014). The age of exploration and exploitation: Younger-looking leaders endorsed for change and older-looking leaders endorsed for stability. The Leadership Quarterly, 25, 805-816. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.06.001.

  • Standish Group. (2014). Standish group report: Chaos. Retrieved from Standish Group. (2015). Standish Group 2015 Chaos Report. Retrieved from

  • Sturges, J. (1999). What it means to succeed: Personal conceptions of career success held by male and female managers at different ages. British Journal of Management, 10, 239-252. doi:10.1111/1467-8551.00130.

  • Tavitiyaman, P., Weerakit, N., and Ryan, B. (2014). Leadership competencies for hotel general managers: The differences in age, education, and hotel characteristics. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 15, 191-216. doi:10.1080/15256480.2014.901069.

  • Teixeira, P. N. (2014). Gary Becker’s early work on human capital-collaborations and distinctiveness. IZA Journal of Labor Economics, 3, 1-20. doi:10.1186/s40172-014-0012-2.

  • Tlaiss, H. A. and Mendelson, M. B. (2014). Predicting women’s job satisfaction with personal demographics: evidence from a Middle Eastern country. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25, 434-458. doi:10.1080/09585192.2013.792859.

  • UN. (2017). World population prospects. Retrieved from

  • Verheyen, T., Deschacht, N., and Guerry, M.-A. (2016). The occurrence of demotions regarding job level, salary and job authority. Personnel Review, 45, 1217-1239. doi:10.1108/PR-06-2014-0139.

  • Visagie, S. and Koekemoer, E. (2014). What it means to succeed: Personal perceptions of career success held by senior managers. South African Journal of Business Management, 45(1), 43-54. Retrieved from

  • Von Meding, J., Oyedele, L., and Bruen, J. (2014). Linking organisational competency to project success in post-disaster reconstruction. Open House International, 39(3), 7-16. Retrieved from

  • Zaniboni, S. (2015). The interaction between older workers’ personal resources and perceived age discrimination affects the desired retirement age and the expected adjustment. Work, Aging and Retirement, 1, 266-273. doi:10.1093/workar/wav010.

  • Zare, M. B., Mirjalili, A., and Mirabi, M. (2016). Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of management team in construction projects. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 8, 614-630. Retrieved from


Journal + Issues