Effective stakeholder management (ESM) is a critical success factor for projects. The increasing complexity in the relationships among stakeholders and their diverse characteristics, including power and interests makes the management of stakeholders increasingly challenging. To date, much of the literature has focused on the stakeholder analysis with very limited to the direct and indirect relationships between stakeholder characteristics (SC) and project performance (PP). Therefore, the aim of this study is to fill these research gaps by empirically examining (1) the relationship(s) between SC and PP and (2) the mediation effect of ESM on the above-mentioned relationships. Data analysis was conducted using structural equation modelling. The findings suggest that stakeholder legitimate behaviour (LB), opposing behaviour (OB), and conflicting interests affect the ability to achieve both sets of quantitative and qualitative PP negatively. ESM has been identified as a key element to eliminate the negative effects of the aforementioned behaviours on qualitative (and not quantitative) PP measures.
Aaltonen, K., Kujala, J., Havela, L., and Savage, G. (2015). Stakeholder Dynamics During the Project Front-End: The Case of Nuclear Waste Repository Projects. Project Management Journal, 46(6), 15-41. doi: 10.1002/pmj.21549
Agle, B. R., Mitchell, R. K., and Sonnenfeld, J. A. (1999). Who Matters to CEOs? An Investigation of Stakeholder Attributes and Salience, Corporate Performance, and CEO Values. The Academy of Management Journal, 42(5), 507-525. doi:10.2307/256973
Allen, P. J., Bennett, K., and Heritage, B. (2014). SPSS statistics: a practical guide version 22. South Melbourne, Victoria: Cengage Learning Australia.
Baccarini, D. (1996). The concept of project complexity—a review. International Journal of Project Management, 14(4), 201-204. doi: 10.1016/0263-7863(95)00093-3
Baron, R. M., and Kenny, D. A. (1986). The Moderator- Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063
Bear, N. L. (2015). Mastering Complex Projects: Principles for Success and Reliable Performance: White Paper. Sydney: Engineers Australia
Beringer, C., Jonas, D., and Gemunden, H. G. (2012). Establishing Project Portfolio Management: An Exploratory Analysis of the Influence of Internal Stakeholders' Interactions. Project Management Journal, 43(6), 16-32. doi:10.1002/pmj.21307
Blodgett, J. G., Lu, L.-C., Rose, G. M., and Vitell, S. J. (2001). Ethical sensitivity to stakeholder interests: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(2), 190-202. doi:10.1177/03079459994551
Blokhuis, E. G. J., Snijders, C. C. P., Han, Q., and Schaefer, W. F. (2012). Conflicts and cooperation in brownfield redevelopment projects: Application of conjoint analysis and game theory to model strategic decision making. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 138(3), 195-205. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000122
Bond, U. E. (2015). Project management, leadership, and performance: A quantitative study of the relationship between project managers' leadership styles, years of experience and critical success factors (CSFs) to project success. (Dissertation/Thesis). ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Brozovic, D. (2018). Strategic Flexibility: A Review of the Literature Strategic Flexibility. International journal of management reviews : IJMR, 20(1), 3-31.
Brucker, K.D., Macharis, C., and Verbeke, A. (2013). Multi-criteria analysis and the resolution of sustainable development dilemmas: A stakeholder management approach. European Journal of Operational Research, 224(1),122-131. doi: 0.1016/j.ejor.2012.02.021
Bryman, A., and Bell, E. (2015). Business research methods (Fourth ed.). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
Caniato, M., Vaccari, M., Visvanathan, C., and Zurbrugg, C. (2014). Using social network and stakeholder analysis to help evaluate infectious waste management: A step towards a holistic assessment. Waste Management, 34(5), 938-951. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.02.011
Carpini, M. X. D., Cook, F. L., and Jacobs, L. R. (2004). Public deliberation, discursive participation, and citizen engagement: A review of the empirical literature. Annual Review of Political Science, 7(1), 315-344. doi: 10.1146/annurev.polisci.7.121003.091630
Cascetta, E., Cartenì, A., Pagliara, F., and Montanino, M. (2015). A new look at planning and designing transportation systems: A decision-making model based on cognitive rationality, stakeholder engagement and quantitative methods. Transport Policy, 38, 27-39. doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2014.11.005
Cheung, G. W., and Lau, R. S. (2008). Testing Mediation and Suppression Effects of Latent Variables Bootstrapping With Structural Equation Models. Organizational research methods, 11(2), 296-325.
Chinyio, E. A., and Akintoye, A. (2008). Practical approaches for engaging stakeholders: findings from the UK. Construction Management and Economics, 26(6), 591-599. doi: 10.1080/01446190802078310
Cooper, R. G. (2016). Agile-stage-gate hybrids. Research Technology Management, 59(1), 21-29. doi:10.1080/08956308.2016.1117317
Cox, R. F., Issa, R. R. A., and Ahrens, D. (2003). Management's Perception of Key Performance Indicators for Construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 129(2), 142-151. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2003)129:2(142)
Cragg, W., and Greenbaum, A. (2002). Reasoning about Responsibilities: Mining Company Managers on What Stakeholders are Owed. Journal of Business Ethics, 39(3), 319-335. doi: 10.1023/a:1016523113429
Damoah, I. S., and Akwei, C. (2017). Government project failure in Ghana: a multidimensional approach. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 10(1), 32-59. doi:10.1108/IJMPB-02-2016-0017
Dao, B., Kermanshachi, S., Shane, J., Anderson, S., and Hare, E. (2016). Identifying and Measuring Project Complexity. Procedia Engineering, 145, 476-482. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.04.024
Deegan, B., and Parkin, J. (2011). Planning cycling networks: human factors and design processes. Proceedings of the ICE-Engineering Sustainability, 164(1), 85-93.
El-Gohary, N. M., Osman, H., and El-Diraby, T. E. (2006). Stakeholder management for public private partnerships. International Journal of Project Management, 24(7), 595-604.
Etzioni, A. (1964). Modern organizations. (Foundations of modern sociology series). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Floricel, S., Michela, J. L., and Piperca, S. (2016). Complexity, uncertainty-reduction strategies, and project performance. International Journal of Project Management.
Fowler, M., and Highsmith, J. (2001). The Agile Manifesto. Software Development, 9(8), 7.
French, J. R. P., and Raven, B. (1959). The Bases of Social Power. In Group dynamic: Research and theory. Harper & Row, New York.
Hales, C. (2001). Managing through organization: the management process, forms of organization and the work of managers (2nd ed.). Sydney, N.S.W.: Business Press, Thomson Learning.
Havard, L., Brigand, L., and Carino, M. (2015). Stakeholder participation in decision-making processes for marine and coastal protected areas: Case studies of the south-western Gulf of California, Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management, 116, 116-131. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.06.017
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication monographs, 85(1), 4-40.
Herazo, B., and Lizarralde, G. (2016). Understanding stakeholders’ approaches to sustainability in building projects. Sustainable Cities and Society. doi: 10.1016/j.scs.2016.05.019
Hinkin, T. R., and Schriesheim, C. A. (1994). An Examination of Subordinate-Perceived Relationships Between Leader Reward and Punishment Behavior and Leader Bases of Power. Human Relations, 47(7), 779-800. doi: 10.1177/001872679404700702
Ika, L. A. (2009). Project Success as a Topic in Project Management Journals. Project Management Journal, 40(4), 6-19. doi: 10.1002/pmj.20137
Judd, C. M., and Kenny, D. A. (1981). Process Analysis: Estimating Mediation in Treatment Evaluations. Evaluation Review, 5(5), 602-619. doi: 10.1177/0193841X8100500502
Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, United States: Guilford publications.
KPMG. (2017). Driving Business Performance: Project Management Survey. Retrieved from https://assets.kpmg/.
Lappi, T., and Aaltonen, K. (2017). Project governance in public sector agile software projects. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 10(2), 263-294. doi: 10.1108/ijmpb-04-2016-0031
Leung, M. Y., Yu, J. Y., and Liang, Q. (2013). Improving Public Engagement in Construction Development Projects from a Stakeholder's Perspective. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 139(11). doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000754
Lodge, M. (1986). A Partisan Schema for Political Information Processing. The American political science review, 80(2), 505-519.
Luyet, V., Schlaepfer, R., Parlange, M. B., and Buttler, A. (2012). A framework to implement Stakeholder participation in environmental projects. Journal of Environmental Management, 111, 213-219. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.06.026
Martinez, N. M. (2016). Towards a network place branding through multiple stakeholders and based on cultural identities The case of “The Coffee Cultural Landscape” in Colombia. Journal of Place Management and Development, 9(1), 73-90. doi: 10.1108/jpmd-11-2015-0052
McKenna, A., and Metcalfe, M. (2013). The linguistic turn in project conceptualization. International Journal of Project Management, 31(8), 1154-1162. doi: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2012.12.006
Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., and Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts. The Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 853-886. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1997.9711022105
Mok, K. Y., Shen, G. Q., and Yang, J. (2015). Stakeholder management studies in mega construction projects: A review and future directions. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), 446-457. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2014.08.007
Mok, K. Y., Shen, G. Q., and Yang, R. (2018). Stakeholder complexity in large scale green building projects. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 25(11), 1454-1474. doi: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2016-0205
Morsing, M., and Schultz, M. (2006). Corporate social responsibility communication: stakeholder information, response and involvement strategies. Business Ethics: A European Review, 15(4), 323-338.
Newcombe, R. (2003). From client to project stakeholders: a stakeholder mapping approach. Construction Management and Economics, 21(8), 841-848.
Nguyen, T. S., and Mohamed, S. (2018). Stakeholder Management in Complex Projects. Paper presented at the The 7th World Construction Symposium 2018: Built Asset Sustainability: Rethinking Design, Construction and Operations, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Nguyen, T. S., Mohamed, S., and Panuwatwanich, K. (2018). Stakeholder Management in Complex Project: Review of Contemporary Literature. Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management, 8(2), 75-89.
Olander, S. and Landin, A. (2005). Evaluation of stakeholder influence in the implementation of construction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 23(4), 321-328. doi: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2005.02.002
Olander, S. and Landin, A. (2008). A comparative study of factors affecting the external stakeholder management process. Construction Management and Economics, 26(6), 553-561.
Oliveira D.F.G. and Rabechini Jr, R. (2019). Stakeholder management influence on trust in a project: A quantitative study. International Journal of Project Management, 37(1), 131-144. doi: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2018.11.001
Olsson, N. O. E. (2006). Management of flexibility in projects. International Journal of Project Management, 24(1), 66-74. doi: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2005.06.010
Ommen, N. O., Blut, M., Backhaus, C., and Woisetschlager, D. M. (2016). Toward a better understanding of stakeholder participation in the service innovation process: More than one path to success. Journal of Business Research, 69(7), 2409-2416. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.01.010
Pacagnella Júnior, A. C., Porto, G. S., Pacífico, O., and Salgado Júnior, A. P. (2015). Project stakeholder management: A case study of a Brazilian science park. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 10(2), 39-49. doi: 10.4067/S0718-27242015000200004
Parent, M. M., and Deephouse, D. L. (2007). A case study of stakeholder identification and prioritization by managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(1), 1-23.
Park, H., Kim, Y.-W., Kim, H., and Kim, K. (2017). Stakeholder Management in Long-Term Complex Megaconstruction Projects: The Saemangeum Project. Journal of Management in Engineering, 33(4), 5017002. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000515
PMI. (2004). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK guide) (3rd ed.). Newtown Square, Pa: Project Management Institute, Inc.
PMI. (2008). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK guide) (Vol. 4th;Fourth;). Newtown Square, Pa: Project Management Institute, Inc.
Post, J. E., Preston, L. E., and Sauter-Sachs, S. (2002). Redefining the corporation: Stakeholder management and organizational wealth, Stanford University Press.
Rahim, M.A.,, Antonioni, D., and Psenicka, C. (2001). A structural equations model of leader power, subordinates' styles of handing conflict, and job performance. International Journal of Conflict Management, 12(3), 191-211. doi: 10.1108/eb022855
Reichart, J. (2003). A Theoretical Exploration of Expectational Gaps in the Corporate Issue Construct. Corporate Reputation Review, 6(1), 58-69. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.crr.1540190
Sæbø, Ø., Flak, L. S., and Sein, M. K. (2011). Understanding the dynamics in e-Participation initiatives: Looking through the genre and stakeholder lenses. Government Information Quarterly, 28(3), 416-425. doi: 10.1016/j.giq.2010.10.005
Salancik, G. R., and Pfeffer, J. (1974). The Bases and Use of Power in Organizational Decision Making: The Case of a University. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19(4), 453-473.
Schepper, S.D., Dooms, M., and Haezendonck, E. (2014). Stakeholder dynamics and responsibilities in Public–Private Partnerships: A mixed experience. International Journal of Project Management, 32(7), 1210-1222. doi: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2014.01.006
Serrador, P., and Pinto, J. K. (2015). Does Agile work? - A quantitative analysis of agile project success. International Journal of Project Management, 33(5), 1040-1051. doi: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2015.01.006
Shenhar, A. J., Dvir, D., Levy, O., and Maltz, A. C. (2001). Project Success: A Multidimensional Strategic Concept. Long Range Planning, 34(6), 699-725. doi: 10.1016/S0024-6301(01)00097-8
Sutterfield, J. S., Friday-Stroud, S. S., and Shivers-Blackwell, S. L. (2006). A case study of project and stakeholder management failures: lessons learned. Project Management Quarterly, 37(5), 26.
Turner, R., and Zolin, R. (2012). Forecasting Success on Large Projects: Developing Reliable Scales to Predict Multiple Perspectives by Multiple Stakeholders Over Multiple Time Frames. Project Management Journal, 43(5), 87-99. doi: 10.1002/pmj.21289
Vidal, L. A., Marle, F., and Bocquet, J. C. (2011). Measuring project complexity using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. International Journal of Project Management, 29(6), 718-727. doi: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2010.07.005
Wang, T., Abdallah, M., Clevenger, C., and Monghasemi, S. (2019). Time–cost–quality trade-off analysis for planning construction projects. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, ahead-of-print (ahead-ofprint). doi: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2017-0271
Yang, R. J. (2014). An investigation of stakeholder analysis in urban development projects: Empirical or rationalistic perspectives. International Journal of Project Management, 32(5), 838-849. doi: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2013.10.011
Yang, R. J., Wang, Y., and Jin, X. H. (2014). Stakeholders' Attributes, Behaviors, and Decision - Making Strategies in Construction Projects: Importance and Correlations in Practice. Project Management Journal, 45(3), 74-90. doi: 10.1002/pmj.21412
Zidane, Y. J. T., Johansen, A., Ekambaram, A., and Hald, L. C. (2015). When Stakeholders Shape Successes or Bring Failures – A Case Study of an Algerian Megaproject. Procedia Computer Science, 64, 844-851. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2015.08.637