Image Based Surface Temperature Extraction and Trend Detection in an Urban Area of West Bengal, India

Sk Ziaul 1  and Swades Pal 1
  • 1 Department of Geography, University of Gour Banga, Malda 732103, West Bengal, India

Abstract

Rapid urbanization and change of landuse/landcover results in changes of the thermal spectrum of a city even in small cities like English Bazaar Municipality (EBM) of Malda district. Monitoring the spatio-temporal surface temperature patterns is important, therefore, the present paper attempts to extract spatio-temporal surface temperature from thermal band of Landsat imageries and tries to validate it with factor based Land Surface Temperature (LST) models constructed based on six proxy temperature variables for selected time periods (1991, 2010 and 2014). Seasonal variation of temperature is also analyzed from the LST models over different time phases. Landsat TIRS based LST shows that in winter season, the minimum and maximum LST have raised up 2.32°C and 3.09°C in last 25 years. In pre monsoon season, the increase is much higher (2.80°C and 6.74°C) than in the winter period during the same time frame. In post monsoon season, exceptional situation happened due to high moisture availability caused by previous monsoon rainfall spell. Trend analysis revealed that the LST has been rising over time. Expansion and intensification of built up land as well as changing thermal properties of the urban heartland and rimland strongly control LST. Factor based surface temperature models have been prepared for the same period of times as done in case of LST modeling. In all seasons and selected time phases, correlation coefficient values between the extracted spatial LST model and factor based surface temperature model varies from 0.575 to 0.713 and these values are significant at 99% confidence level. So, thinking over ecological growth of urban is highly required for making the environment ambient for living.

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