Flood is an excess inundation of water on a surface and difficult to manage. The flood occurred in previous decades of Afar region of Ethiopia, consequently, leads to the death of human beings, destruction of infrastructures, an annihilation of massive hydraulic structures, and downstream properties. The main responsible factors for the flood incidences of the region are climate change, global warming, deforestation, and desertification. Climate change, however, is the foremost reason of increasing flood hazard. To coincide with this, hydraulic structures are designed based on the previously recorded flow data of a river. In Ethiopia, numerous earthen dams are constructed. The water storage capacity of dams is determined by the appraised flood of the upstream catchment: however, when the catchment flood increases due to climate extremes, the constructed structures cannot carry and going to demolish. The extra water that rises due to climate change from the catchment has to be removed before joins to the reservoir. This study has evaluated the potential reservoir deficiency of Kesem Kebena dam due to climate change. The study has comprehended different methods based on scientific criteria and selects the appropriate measure. As per the research output, the excess water that will arise from the catchment and add to the reservoir can be controlled by diversion floodways (Emergency spillways). The study has determined the amount of excess flood join to the reservoir for the excess rainfall incident month (August) for 100 years return period. Its magnitude is 85.76m3/s. The emergency spillway is the best means to divert such unwanted water before joining to the reservoir. Its hydraulic design is discussed in the study.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Abaya S. W. 2008. Floods and Health in Gambella region Ethiopia: An Assessment of the strength and weakness of the coping mechanism. M.Sc. Thesis Lund University. Available at: https://www.lumes.lu.se/sites/lumes.lu.se/files/samson_abaya.pdf
Arora K. R. 2012. Irrigation Water Power and Water Resources Engineering. Standard Publisher Distribution Delhi. ISBN: 81-8014-007-5. 1106 p
Asfaw H. B. Essen P. V. Tsige T.Z. 2014. Background Information for a Program Approach Challenges and possible cooperation between Dutch and Ethiopia counterparts Integrated water resources management Upper Awash River Basin Central Ethiopia. Waterschap. Online available at: http://www.waterethiopia.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Background-information-for-a-Program-Approach-Challenges-and-Possible-Cooperation-between-Dutch-and-Ethiopia-counterparts.pdf
Botto A. Ganora D. Laio F. Claps P. 2014. Uncertainty compliant design flood estimation. Water Resources Research 50 (5) 4242–4253. DOI: 10.1002/2013wr014981
Chow V. T. Maidment D. R. Mays L. W. 1988. Applied Hydrology. The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York 572.
Cowin M. W. Bardini G. B. 2011. Central Valley Flood Protection Plan. Floodsafe California. Online available at: https://water.ca.gov/LegacyFiles/floodsafe/fessro/docs/flood_tab_cvfpp.pdf
Garg S.K. 2006. Irrigation Engineering And Hydraulic Structures. Khanna Publishers Delhi India. 1184 p.
Haile A. T. Kusters K. Wagesho N. 2013. Loss and damage from flooding in the Gambela region Ethiopia. International Journal of Global Warming 5(4) 483–497. DOI: 10.1504/ijgw.2013.057290
Hudson H. R. Harding J. S. 2004. Drainage management in New Zealand. Wellington: Department of Conservation. 39p.
Onwuka S. Ikekpeazu F. O. Onuoha D. C2015. Assessment of the causes of 2012 floods in Aguleri and Umuler Anambra East local government area of anambra sstate Nigeria. British Journal of Environmental Sciences 541 43–57.
Ranghunath H. 2006. Hydrology: Principle design and Analysis.: New Age International (P) Limited New Delhi 476 p.
Salas J. D. Govindaraju R. S. Anderson M. Arabi M. France´s F. Suarez W. 2014. Introduction to Hydrology. In: Wang L.K. Yang C. T. Modern Water Resources Engineering 1–126.. DOI: 0.1007/978-1-62703-595-8_1
Shemeles P. 1998. Establishing water release rules for Koka reservoir for wet seasons. MSc Theses Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University Online available at: http://etd.aau.edu.et/handle/123456789/2070?show=full
Shaw E. M. 2005. Hydrology in Practice. London Taylor and Francis e-Library 613 p.
Stephens D. B. 2012. Sonoma Valley Stormwater Management and Groundwater Recharge Scoping Study Screening Evaluation and Prioritization Memorandum 1-46. Online available at: http://www.scwa.ca.gov/files/docs/projects/stormwater-groundwater/Sonoma_Scoping_Screening_Memo_Final-Memo+Plates.pdf
Suykens C. Priest S. J. van Doorn-Hoekveld W. J. Thuillier T. Rijswick M. V. 2016. Dealing with flood damages: will prevention mitigation and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle? Ecology and Society 21(4) 1–17. DOI: 10.5751/es-08592-210401
Wobus C. Gutmann E. Jones R. Rissing M. Mizukami N. Lorie M. 2017. Climate change impacts on flood risk and asset damages within mapped 100-year floodplains of the contiguous United States. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 17 2199–2211. DOI: 10.5194/nhess-17-2199-2017
WWDSE 2006. Hydrologic Design Report of Kesem Kebena Dam and Irrigation Project. Water Works Design Supervision Enterprise Addis Ababa Ethiopia.