Groundwater: Quality Levels and Human Exposure, SW Nigeria

Adeyemi Olusola 1 , Opeyemi Adeyeye 1 , and Olufemi Durowoju 2
  • 1 Department of Geography, Osun State University, P.M.B 4404, , Osogbo, Nigeria
  • 2 Department of Geography, Osun State University, P.M.B 4404, , Osogbo, Nigeria

Abstract

Groundwater serves as a source of freshwater for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes and it accounts for about 42%, 27% and 36% respectively. As it remains the only source of all-year-round supply of freshwater globally, it is of vital importance as regards water security, human survival and sustainable agriculture. The main goal of this study is to identify the main cause-effect relationship between human activities and the state of groundwater quality using a communication tool (the DPSIR Model; Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact and Response). A total of twenty-one samples were collected from ten peri-urban communities scattered across three conterminous Local Government Areas in Southwestern Nigeria. Each of the groundwater samples was tested for twelve parameters - total dissolved solids, pH, bicarbonate, chloride, lead, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, sulphate, magnesium and total suspended solids. The study revealed that the concentrations of DO and Pb were above threshold limits, while pH and N were just below the threshold and others elements were within acceptable limits based on Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality and Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality. The study revealed that groundwater quality levels from the sampled wells are under pressure leading to reduction in the amount of freshwater availability. This is a first-order setback in achieving access to freshwater as a sustainable development goal across Less Developed Communities (LDCs) globally. To combat this threat, there is the need for an integrated approach in response towards groundwater conservation and sustainability by all stakeholders.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Adelana, S.M.A., T.A. Abiye, D.C.W. Nkhuwa, C. Tindemugaya, M.S. Oga. 2008. Urban groundwater management and protection in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Adelana S.M.A and MacDonald, A.M (eds) Appliedgroundwater studies in Africa. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 231-260

  • Akoteyon, I. S. 2013. Hydrochemical Studies of Groundwater in Parts of Lagos. Southwestern Nigeria. Bulletin of Geograohy, Physical Geography Series (6), 27-42. DOI: 10.2478/bgeo-2013-0002

  • APHA, AWWA, WEF 1998. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Edn., APHA, Washington, DC.

  • Borja, A, Galparsoro I, Solaun O, Muxika I, Tello M, Uriarte A, et al 2005. The European Water Framework Directive and the DPSIR, A methodological approach to assess the risk of failing to achieve good ecological status. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 66:84-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2005.07.021

  • Cap-Net, 2016. Ecosystem functions and services: Integrated water resources management. Training Manual. Online available at: www.cap-net.org

  • Danielopol, D, Griebler, C, Gunatilaka, A, Notenboom J. 2003. Present state and future prospects for groundwater ecosystems. Environ Conserv 30(2): 104-30. DOI: 10.1017/s0376892903000109

  • Ibeh, L.M., Mbah, C.N. 2007. Surface characteristics of urban rivers in Enugu South eastern Nigeria. World Journal of Biotechnology 8(2), 1412-1417.

  • Kehinde, M.O., Loehnert, E.P. 1989. Review of African groundwater resources. Journal of African Earth Sciences 9, 179-185. DOI: 10.1016/0899-5362(89)90019-5

  • Kumar, M., Kumari, K., Ramanathan, A.L., Saxena, R. 2007. A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two intensively cultivated districts of Punjab, India. Env. Geol., 53: 553-574. DOI: 10.1007/s00254-007-0672-3

  • MacDonald, A.M., Kemp, S.J. Davies, J. 2005. Transmissivity variations in mudstones. Ground Water 43, 259-269. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2005.0020.x

  • NPC (National Population Census) 2006. Details of the breakdown of the national and stateprovisional population totals. Official Gazette 96 (2), 1-42, Federal Republic of Nigeria, Abuja.

  • National Population Commission. 2011. Nigeria's over 167million population: Implications and challenges. Retrieved March, 10, 2012

  • NSDWQ, 2007. Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Nigerian Industrial Standard NIS 554, Standard Organization of Nigeria, p30.

  • Oluwande, P. 1983. Guide to tropical environmental health engineering. Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research Ibadan (NISER), Ibadan, pp. 141-147.

  • Phillips, A.J., Gerlach, R., Lauchnor, E., Mitchell, A.C., Cunningham, A.B., Spangler, L. 2013. Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: a review. Biofouling 29(6), 715-733. DOI: 10.1080/08927014.2013.796550

  • Sangodoyin, A.Y., Agbawhe, O.M. 1992. Environmental study on surface and groundwater pollutants from abattoir effluents. Bioresource Technology 41(3), 193-200. DOI: 10.1016/0960-8524(92)90001-e

  • Stigter, T. Y., Ribeiro, L., Carvalho Dill, A. M. M. 2006. Application of a groundwater quality index as an assessment and communication tool in agro-environmental policies - Two Portuguese case studies. Journal of Hydrology 327(3-4), 578-591. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.12.001

  • Todd, D.K., Mays, L.W. 2005. Groundwater Hydrology, 3rd edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc. p, 652.

  • UN Report (United Nations Report) 1997. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1996 Revision. New York, USA: UN Secretariat, Population Division.

  • WHO (World Health Organisation), 1996a. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, vol. 2: Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information, second ed. World Health Organisation Press, Geneva.

  • WHO (World Health Organisation), 1996b. Water Quality Monitoring: A Practical Guide to the Design and Implementation of Freshwater Quality Studies and Monitoring Programmes. E and FN Spon, London, UK.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search