Impacts of Stone Mining and Crushing on Stream Characters and Vegetation Health of Dwarka River Basin of Jharkhand and West Bengal, Eastern India

Swades Pal 1  and Indrajit Mandal 2
  • 1 Department of Geography, University of Gour Banga, Malda 732103, , West Bengal, India
  • 2 Department of Geography, University of Gour Banga, Malda 732103, , West Bengal, India


Dwarka River basin (3882.71 km2) of Eastern India in the Chotonagpur Plateau and Gangetic Plain is highly affected by stone mining and crushing generated dust. In the middle catchment of this basin, there are 239 stone mines and 982 stone crushing units. These produce approximately 258120 tons of dust every year and this dust enters into the river and coats the leaves of plants. On the one hand, this is aggrading in the stream bed, increasing sediment load, decreasing water quality, specifically increasing total dissolved solid, pH, water colour, and it also degrades the vegetation quality. Vegetation quality is also degraded as indicated by decreasing of NDVI values (maximum NDVI in 1990 was 0.70 and in 2016 it was 0.48). Considering all these issues, the present paper intends to identify dust vulnerable zones based on six major driving parameters and the impact of the dust on river morphology, water quality and vegetation quality in different vulnerable zones. Weighted linear combination method (in Arc Gis environment) is used for compositing the selected parameters and deriving vulnerable zones. Weight to the each parameter is assigned based on analytic hierarchy process, a semi quantitative method. According to the results, 579.64 km2 (14.93%) of the catchment area is very highly vulnerable: Here 581 rivers have a length of 713 km and these riversare prone to high dust deposition, increased sediment load and water quality deterioration.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Aldridge, D.W., Payne, B.S., Miller, A.C.1987.The effects of intermittent exposure to suspended solids and turbulence on three species of freshwater mussels. Environ Pollut 45: 17-28. DOI:10.1016/0269-7491(87)90013-3

  • Araujo,C.C., Macedo,A.B. 2002. Multicriteria geologic data analysis for mineral favorability mapping: application to a metal sulphide mineralized area, Ribeira Valley Metallogenic Province Brazil. Nat. Resour.Res. 11: 29-43.

  • Asproth,V., Holmberg,S.C., Hakansson,A.1999. Decision Support for spatial planning and management of human settlements. In: International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics. In: Lasker, G.E. (Ed.), Advances in Support Systems Research, Windsor, Ont, Canada 5: 30-39.

  • Bell, F.G., Bullock., Lindsey,P. 2001. Environmental Impacts Associated with an abandoned mine in the Witbank Coalfield, South Africa., International Journal of Coal Ecology 45: 195-216. DOI: 10.1016/s0166-5162(00)00033-1

  • BIS.1991. Bureau of Indian Standard, Mainak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Maro, New Delhi 110002.

  • Blatt, H., Tracy, R.J. 1997. Petrology igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic (2nd ed.). New York Freeman P: 66-67.

  • Breitburg, D.L., Keister, J.E., Houde, E.D.2000. Effects of bottom-layer hypoxia on abundances and depth distributions of organisms in Patuxent River, Chesapeake Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 205 , 43-59. DOI:10.3354/meps205043

  • Chakrabarty, S.C. 1970. Some consideration on the evolution of physiogrphy of Bengal. Geography Institute. Presidency College, Calcutta, pp. 20-21.

  • Clavel. P., Bouchard, B. 1980. Incidences des extractions de granulats d’alluvions et de certains travaux hydrauliques, sur le periphyton, la production primaire et la production secondaire danstrois cours d’eau du massif central. Ann Stat Biol Besse en Chandesse 14: 350.

  • Cordone, A.J., Kelley, D.W.1961. The influences of inorganic sediment on the aquatic life of streams. Calif Fish Game 47(2): 189-228.

  • CPCB, 2009. Comprehensive Industry Document Stone Crushers, Central Pollution Control Board, Govt. Of India, Series: COINDS/78/2007-08, 1.1 - 8.21,

  • Decker, C., Keyes, J., Jackson, C.R., Shelton, J., Jackson, B. 1999. Effects of sand dredging on channel morphology, invertebrate communities and fish communities in Urban Dekalb County streams. In: Hatcher KJ (ed) Proceedings of the 1999 Georgia Water Resources Conference, held March 30-31, 1999, at the University of Georgia. Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, pp 324-326.

  • Dinda, S.2014. Developmental project and its impact on adjacent river ecology: A case study of Kolaghat thermal power plant, West Bengal, India, International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences 5(2): 225-230.

  • Down, C.1974. The Relationship Between Colliery-waste Particle Sizes and Plant Growth.Environmental Conservation, 1(4), 281-284. DOI: 10.1017/S0376892900004902

  • Eastman, J.R. 2006. Idrisi Andes - Tutorial, Clark Labs, Clark University, Worcester, MA.Gajanan N. Supe., Effects of Dustfall on Vegetation., International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 4 (7).

  • Goretti, K.K.M. 1998. The environmental impacts of underground coal mining and land cover changes analysis using multi-temporal remotely sensed data and GIS.Unpublished M.Sc.thesis (cited in Sarma K),International Institute Aerospace Surveys and Earth Sciences (ITC), The Netharlands.

  • Grewal, K.S., Yadava, P.S., Mehta, S.C., Oswal, M.C. 2001. Direct and residual effect of fly ash application to soil on crop yield and soil properties. Crop. Res. 21: 60-65.

  • Horton, R.E.1932. Drainage Basin Characteristics. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 13, 350-361 .DOI: 10.1029/TR013i001p00350

  • Horton, R.E. 1945. Erosional Development of Stream and their Drainage Basins: Hydrological approach to quantitative morphology. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull, 56: 275-370. DOI: 10.1177/030913339501900406

  • Howard., B., Cameron., I. 1998. Dust control: Best Practice Environmental Management in Mining, Environment Australia,72-73

  • IARC, 1997. Silica, some silicates, coal dust and para-aramid fibrils. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 68: 1-242.

  • Jha, V.C.1997. Laterite and landscape development in tropical lands, a case study. In: Nag P, Kumara V, Singh J (ed) Geography and Environment, Concept 1: 12-144.

  • Jha, V.C, Kapat, S. 2009. Rill and gully erosion risk of lateritic terrain in South-Western Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. Soc Nat (Online) 21(2): 141-158.

  • Jha, V.C., Kapat, S. 2003. Gully erosion and its implications on land use, a case study. Land degradation and desertification. Publ., Jaipur and New Delhi 156-178.

  • Jiang, H., Eastman, J.R.. 2000. Application of fuzzy measures in multicriteria evaluation in GIS. Int. J. Geogr. Inform. Syst 14: 173-184. DOI: 10.1080/136588100240903

  • John, S., Iqbal, M.Z.1992. Morphological and anatomical studies on leaves of different plants affected by motor vehicle exhaust. Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences 5: 21-23.

  • Khatun, S., Pal, S. 2016. Identification of Prospective Surface Water Available Zones with Multi Criteria Decision Approach in Kushkarani River Basin of Eastern India, Archives of Current Research International 4(4): 1-20. DOI:10.9734/ACRI/2016/27651

  • Let, S. 2012. Hydro-geomorphic Appraisal of Dwarka River Basin,Ph.D thesis submitted in Visva- Bharati University,Santiniketan,West Bengal,India 167-169.

  • Lowman, M.D., Wittman,P.K. 1996. Forest canopies: methods, hypotheses, and future directions. Ann. Rev. Ecol. and Syst. 27: 55-81. DOI:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.55

  • Mendes, J.F.G., Motizuki, W.S.2001. Urban quality of life evaluation scenarios: the case of Sao Carlos in Brazil. CTBUH Rev 1(2): 1-10.

  • Moran, J.B. Linch, K.D., Cocalis, J.C.1994. An emerging issue: Silicosis prevention in construction. Applied Occupational and environmental hygiene 9(8): 539-542. DOI: 10.1080/1047322X.1994.10388367

  • Liu, Y.J, Ding, H. 2008. Variation in air pollution tolerance index of plants near a steel factory; implication for landscape- plant species selection for industrial areas. WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development 4: 24- 32.

  • Makropoulos, C., Butler, D. 2005. Spatial ordered weighted averaging: incorporating spatially variable attitude towards risk in spatial multi-criteria decision-making. Environ. Modell. Software 21 (1): 69-84. DOI:10.1016/j.envsoft.2004.10.010

  • Malczewski, J. 2004. GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: a critical overview. Prog Plan 62(1): 3-65. DOI:10.1016/S0305-9006(03)00079-5

  • Mishra, R.D., Kumari,P. 2008. Effect of dust pollution on chlorophyll and characteristics of maize. Adv. Biol. Res 26 (1-2): 62-67. DOI:10.20546/ijcmas.2016.505.080

  • Mitchell, C. 2009. Quarry Fines and Waste, British Geological Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG.

  • Nagy, J.,Kiss, T. 2016. Hydrological and Morphological Changes of the Lower Danube Near Mohács, Hungary, Journal of Environmental Geography 9 (1-2), 1-6. DOI: 10.1515/jengeo-2016-0001

  • Nayar, M.P. 1985. Tree Canopies. Air Pollution and Plants: A State of the Art Report. Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, India.

  • Pal, S. 2016. Identification of Soil Erosion Vulnerable Areas in Chandrabhaga River Basin: a Multi-criteria Decision Approach, Model. Earth Syst. Environ. 2(5), 1-11. DOI: 10.1007/s40808-015-0052-z

  • Pal, S., Mahato, S., Sarkar, S. 2016. Impact of fly ash on channel morphology and ambient water quality of Chandrabhaga River of Eastern India. Environ Earth Sci 75:1268. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-016-6060-0

  • Palaka, R., Jaysankar, G. 2015. Identification of Potential Zones for Groundwater Recharge in Kosigi Mandal, Kurnool District, using Remote Sensing and GIS, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology 5: 12-19.

  • Pandey, D.D., Pandey, K.2010. Effect of particulate pollutant on chlorophyll of rice leaf. Adv. Biol. Reg. 28(1): 167-168.

  • Patil, M.A. 2001. Environmental management scenario in stone crusher industry sector and cleaner production possibilities, TERI Information Monitor on Environment Science 6 : 83-92.

  • Pollution Data Division of Environment Canada.2008. Criteria Air Contaminants Emissions Inventory 2006 Guidebook. Emissions and Projections Working Group of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. 57-61.

  • Prajapati, S.K., Tripathi, B.D. 2008. Seasonal variation of leaf dust accumulation and pigment content in plant species exposed to urban particulates pollution, Journal of Environmental Quality 37: 865-870. DOI:10.2134/jeq2006.0511

  • Prasad, S.N., Mishra, C.P., Sinha A.P. 2010. Effect of cement dust pollution on nutritional quality of Dichanthium annulatum. In Proc. Of National Seminar on Environmental pollution. A threat to living world. Organized by P.G. Dept. of Botony, Nalanda College, Biharsharif held on 27-28 March: 19.

  • Pyatt, F.B., Haywood, W.J. 1989. Air borne particulate distributions and their accumulation in tree canopies, Nottingham, UK. The Environmentalist 30: 18-23.

  • Rai, A., Kulshreshtha, K., Srivastava, P.K., Mohanty, C.S. 2010. Leaf surface structure alterations due to particulate pollution in some common plants. The Environmentalist 30: 18-23. DOI: 10.1007/s10669-009-9238-0

  • Randolph, K.N., Clemens, H.P.1976. Some factors influencing the feeding behaviour of channel catfish in culture ponds. Trans Am Fish Soc 105: 718-724. DOI: 10.1577/1548-8659(1976)105<718:sfitfb>;2

  • Rinner, C., Malczewski, J. 2002. Web-enabled spatial decision analysis using ordered weighted averaging. J. Geogr. Syst 4 (4): 385-403. DOI:10.1007/s101090300095

  • Rombough, P.J.1988. Growth, aerobic metabolism, and dissolved oxygen requirements of embryos and alevins of steelhead Salmo gairdneri. Can J Zool 66(3): 651-660. DOI: 10.1139/z88-097

  • Rouse, J.W., Haas, R.H., Scheel, J.A., Deering, D.W.1973.Monitoring Vegetation Systems in the Great Plains with ERTS. Third ERTS Symposium, NASA SP-351 I, 309-317.

  • Saaty, T.L. 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw-Hill, New York

  • Saha, D.C., Padhy, P.K. 2011. Effects of stone crushing industry on Shorea robusta and Madhuca indica foliage in Lalpahari forest Atmospheric Pollution Research 2: 463‐476. DOI: 10.5094/apr.2011.053

  • Sarma, K. 2005. Impact of Coal Mining on Vegetation: A Case Study in Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya,India.,International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation.,Enschede, The Netharlands & IIRS,NRSA,Department of Space.,Dehradun,India.

  • Schumm, S.C. 1956. Evolution of Drainage Systems and Slopes in Badland of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull, 67: 597-646. DOI: 10.1130/0016-7606(1956)67[597:eodsas];2

  • Sharma, S.B., Kumar, B. 2016. Effects of stone crusher dust pollution on growth performance and yield status of rice (Oryza sativa. L), Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci 5(5): 796-806. DOI: 10.20546/ijcmas.2016.505.080

  • Shivacoumar, R., Jayabalou, R., Swarnalatha, S., Balakrishnan, K. 2006. Particulate matter from stone crushing industry: Size distribution and health effects. Journal of Environmental Engineering- ASCF 132: 405-414. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9372(2006)132:3(405)

  • Sipos, G. Blanka., V. Mezősi., G. Kiss., T. van Leeuwen, B. 2014. Effect of Climate Change on the Hydrological Character of River Maros, Hungary-Romania. Journal of Environmental Geography 7 (1-2), 49-56.DOI: 10.2478/jengeo-2014-0006

  • Strahler, A. N. 1964. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks. In Chow, V.T. (ed.) Handbook of Applied Hydrology, McGraw-Hill, New York.439-476.

  • Strahler, A.N.1957. Quantitative Analysis of Watershed Geomorphology. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 38, 913-920. DOI: 10.1029/TR038i006p00913

  • Strahler, A.N.1964. Quantitative Geomorphology of Drainage Basins and Channel Networks. In Chow, V.T. (ed.) Hand book of Applied Hydrology, MacGraw Hill Book Company, New York, Section 4-11.

  • Tucker, D.M., Reger, R.B., Morgan, W.K.C. 1995. Effects of silica exposure among railroad workers. Applied occupational and environmental hygiene 10(12): 1080-1085. DOI: 10.1080/1047322X.1995.10389099

  • UNESCO, 1985. Living in the Environment.UNESCO/UNEP.

  • US Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service 1972. National Engineering Handbook, section 4, Hudrology. US Government Printing Office,Washinton DC.544.

  • USDA, 1986. Urban hydrology for small watersheds; technical releases 55, Natural resources conservation services, Conservation engineering divisions.

  • US EPA, 1996. Ambient levels and noncancer health effects of inhaled crystalline and amorphous silica: health issue assessment. Washington, DC, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development (Publication No. EPA/600/R-95/115; National Technical Information Service Publication No. PB97-188122).

  • Wallen, E.1951. The direct effect of turbidity on fishes. Bull Okla Agric. Mech Coll (Biol) 2:27.

  • Wentworth, C.K.1930. A Simplified method of determining the average slope of land surface. America Journal of Science, Series 5 (Newhaven Connecticut), 20: 184-190. DOI: 10.2475/ajs.s5-20.117.184

  • Ziaul, S., Pal, S. 2016 Image Based Surface Temperature Extraction and Trend Detection in an Urban Area of West Bengal, India. Journal of Environmental Geography 9 (3-4), 13-25. DOI: 10.1515/jengeo-2016-0008


Journal + Issues