A Life History of the ‘Irish’ Ecotype Tied Stones and Loose Dogs

Open access

Abstract

The term ecotype was first introduced to the field of folkloristics by Carl Wilhelm von Sydow (1878–1952), who proposed the idea that folktales develop from base forms due to transformations triggered by specific environmental conditions before eventually stabilising within cultural districts. The general analogy was popular amongst folklorists who readily invoked the concept to deconstruct a wide range of genres including rhyming couplets, folk ballads, folktales, fairy-tales, personal narratives, legends and urban legends. It is unfortunate, however, that ecotypes have largely been ignored by scholars working in the fields of paremiology, especially when one considers not only the established inter-relationships between proverbial material and other folkoristic genres, but also the recent pioneering cross-cultural analyses of idiomatic expressions in European languages and beyond.

This paper will provide a template for the analysis of folk expressions by examining the life history of an Irish ecotype, tied stones and loose dogs. It will show that folk expressions are a fertile area of research that can be deconstructed using literary and historical research based on the historic-geographic method. At the heart of this template, I argue, is the need to read texts within their contemporary cultural, historical and socio-economic frameworks to decode meanings according to instantiation, the motivations for their use, and the question of agency in folk groups. By collecting, examining and construing inter-relations between folkloristic texts across a range of cultural products – folklore collections, popular culture periodicals and political discourse – and by informed cultural contextualisation of its instantiations, we can re-construct the extensive cultural underpinnings that inform a range of everyday folk expressions.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abrahams Roger. 1963. Folklore in Culture: Notes Toward an Analytic Method. – Texas Studies in Literature and Language 5 (1): 98–110.

  • Abrahams Roger. 1964. Deep Down in the Jungle: Black American Folklore from the Streets of Philadelphia. Hatboro PA: Folklore Associates.

  • Almqvist Bo. 1975. The Fisherman in Heaven. – Hereditas: Essays and Studies presented to Professor Séamus Ó Duilearga former Honorary Director of the Irish Folklore Commission editor of Béaloideas 1927–1973 Patron of the Folklore of Ireland Society edited by Bo Almqvist Breandán Mac Aodha and Gearóid Mac Eoin. Dublin: Folklore of Ireland Society 1–55.

  • Anon. 1620. The Decameron. London: Iaggard.

  • Anon. 1798. The Weekly Magazine of Original Essays Fugitive Pieces and Interesting Intelligence. Philadelphia PA: J. Watters & Co.

  • Anon. 1897. Giotaidhe ó Chonntae Phortláirge. – Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge 7: 151.

  • Ashton John. 2001. Ecotypes Etiology and Contemporary Legend: The ‘Webber’ Cycle in Western Newfoundland. – Contemporary Legend 4: 48–60.

  • Baleghizadeh Sasan and Ahmad Sharifi. 2010. Explicitation of Implicit Logical Links in Persian– English Translation. – Translation & Interpreting 2 (2): 57–65.

  • Ballard Linda-May. 1983. The Formulation of the Oicotype: A Case Study. – Fabula 24 (3): 233– 245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/fabl.1983.24.3-4.233.

  • Barber Karin. 2007. The Anthropology of Texts Persons and Publics: Oraland Written Culture in Africa and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511619656.

  • Beyer Jürgen. 2011. Are Folklorists Studying the Tales of the Folk? – Folklore 122 (1): 35–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0015587X.2011.537132.

  • Blake Norman F. 1981. Non-Standard Language in English Literature. London: André Deutsch.

  • Boerth Robert. 2000. Review. Travels through Stuart Britain: The Adventures of John Taylor the Water Poet by John Chandler. – Sixteenth Century Journal 31 (3): 915–916. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2671156.

  • Bošković-Stulli Maja. 1966. Regional Variations in Folktales. – Journal of the Folklore Institute 3 (3): 299–314. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3813803.

  • Bourgeois Maurice. 1913. John Millington Synge and the Irish Theatre. London: Constable & Company Ltd.

  • Bracciolini Poggio. 1470. Poggii Florentini ... Facetiarum Liber. Rome: Georg Lauer.

  • Briggs Charles L. 1993. Metadiscursive Practices and Scholarly Authority in Folkloristics. – The Journal of American Folklore 106 (422): 387–434. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/541905.

  • Brunvand Jan Harold. 1974. Folklore: A Study and Research Guide. New York NY: St. Martin’s Press.

  • Brunvand Jan Harold. 1981. The Vanishing Hitchhiker: American Urban Legends and Their Meanings. New York NY: W. W. Norton and Company.

  • Capp Bernard. 1994. John Taylor the Water-Poet: 1578–1653. Oxford: Clarendon Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198203759.001.0001.

  • Capp Bernard. 2004. Taylor John [called the Water Poet] (1578–1653). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/27044.

  • Carroll Bombaugh Charles. 1871. The Book of Blunders. Comprising Hibernicisms Bulls that are not Irish and Typographic Errors. Philadelphia PA: Evans Stoddart and Co.

  • Castiglione Baldassarre. 1528. Il Libro Del Cortegiano Del Conte Baldesar Castiglione. Venetiis.

  • Chandler John H. 1999. Travels through Stuart Britain: The Adventures of John Taylor the Water Poet. Stroud: Sutton.

  • Cochrane Timothy. 1987. The Concept of Ecotypes in American Folklore. – Journal of Folklore Research 24 (1): 33–55.

  • Coleridge Samuel Taylor and Robert Southey. 1812. Omniana or Horae Otiosiores. London: Long-man.

  • Cunningham Keith Kermit. 1976. A Study of the Southern Folk Song Style Area Sweetheart Murder Ballad: The Search for an Oicoclass. A PhD Thesis. Indiana University.

  • Dégh Linda. 1961. Die schöpferische Tätigkeit des Erzählers. – Internationaler Kongreß der Volkserzählungsforscher in Kiel und Kopenhagen: Vorträge und Referate edited by Kurt Ranke. Berlin: De Gruyter 63–73.

  • Dégh Linda. 1972. Folk Narrative. – Folklore and Folklife: An Introduction edited by Richard M. Dorson. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press 53–83.

  • Dégh Linda. 1994. American Folklore and the Mass Media. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press.

  • De hÍde Dubġlas 2013. Lia Fáil: Irisleaḃar Gaeḋilge Ollsgoile na hÉireann / ar n–a ċur i n–eagar leis an gCraoiḃín (Dubġlas de hÍde). Dublin: Ollscoil na hÉireann.

  • Dorson Richard M. 1956. Negro Folktales in Michigan. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674330252.

  • Dundes Alan. 1962. The Binary Structure of ‘Unsuccessful Repetition’ in Lithuanian Folk Tales. – Western Folklore 21 (3): 165–174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1496955.

  • du Ryer André. 1634. Gulistan ou l’Empire des Roses. Paris: de Sommaville.

  • Earls Brian. 1988. Bulls Blunders and Bloothers: An Examination of the Irish Bull. – Béaloideas 56: 1–92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/20522309.

  • Ellis Bill. 1983. De Legendis Urbis: Modern Legends in Ancient Rome. – The Journal of American Folklore 96 (380): 200–208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/540293.

  • European Convention on Human Rights = European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 and 14. 4 November 1950. Council of Europe. https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf (accessed March 29 2019).

  • Financial Resolutions 1982 = Dáil Éireann debate Financial Resolutions 1982: Financial Resolution No. 1: Excise—Beer Wednesday 27 January 1982. https://www.oireachtas.ie/en/debates/debate/dail/1982-01-27/24/ (accessed April 1 2019).

  • Fine Gary Alan. 1987. Welcome to the World of AIDS: Fantasies of Female Revenge. – Western Folklore 46 (3): 192–197. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1499525.

  • Fine Gary Alan. 1992. Rumors of Apartheid: The Ecotypification of Contemporary Legends in the New South Africa. – Journal of Folklore Research 29 (1): 53–71.

  • FGB = Ó Dónaill Niall. 1977. Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla. Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig an tSoláthair. http://www.teanglann.ie/ga/ (accessed March 3 2019).

  • Foster John Wilson. 1969. A Descriptive Nomenclature for the Study of lore Part II: The Evolutionary Model. – Western Folklore 28 (2): 101–111. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1498507.

  • Friedman Albert. 1974. ‘When Adam Delved…’: Contexts of an Historic Proverb. – Harvard English Studies 4: 213–230.

  • Fritze Ronald H. and William B. Robison eds. 1996. Historical Dictionary of Stuart England 1603–1689. Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing.

  • García-Bermejo Giner María F. 2002. Regional Dialects in Sixteenth-Century Jest-Books. – Sederi 12: 209–218.

  • Gardenier Barent ed. 1814. The Examiner: Containing Political Essays on the Most Important Events of the Time; Public Laws and Official Documents 2. New York NY: Published by the editor No. 34 Cedar Street.

  • Gentius Georgius. 1651. Musladini Sadi Rosarium Politicum; Sive Amœnum Sortis Humanæ Theatrum De Persico in Latinum Versum Necessariisque Notis Illustratum a G. Gentio. Amstelædami.

  • Gilbert B. C. 1847. Atwater Portage co. July 12 ’47. – Anti-Slavery Bugle July 23.

  • Gladwin Francis. 1806. The Gûlistân of Sâdy. With Notes and References to the English Translation. Calcutta: Hindoostanee Press.

  • Goldstein Diane E. 1996. Welcome to the Mainland Welcome to the World of AIDS: Cultural Variability Localization and Contemporary Legend. – Contemporary Legend: A Reader edited by Gillian Bennett and Paul Smith. New York NY: Garland Publishing 209–224.

  • Grzybek Peter. 1994. Blason populaire. – Simple Forms. An Encyclopaedia of Simple Text–types in Lore and Literature edited by Walter A. Koch. Bochum: Brockmeyer 19–25.

  • Hafstein Valdimar. 2001. Biological Metaphors in Folklore Theory: An Essay in the History of Ideas. – Arv. Nordic Yearbook of Folklore 57: 7–32.

  • Hasan-Rokem Galit. 2000. Web of Life: Folklore and Midrash in Rabbinic Literature. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.

  • Hasan-Rokem Galit. 2003. Tales of the Neighborhood: Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity. Taubman Lectures on Jewish Civilisation. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.

  • Hasan-Rokem Galit. 2016. Ecotypes: Theory of the Lived and Narrated Experience. – Narrative Culture 3 (1): 110–137. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13110/narrcult.3.1.0110.

  • Hazlitt William Carew. 1887. A Hundred Merry Tales: The Earliest English Jest-book. Now First Reproduced in Photo-lithography from the Unique Copy of 1526 in the Royal Library at Göttingen. With an Introduction Notes and Glossarial Index by W. Carew Hazlitt. London: J. W. Jarvis & Son.

  • Higgins Michael D. 2012. Remarks at a Reception for Delegates at Law Commissions Meeting. – President of Ireland. http://www.president.ie/en/media-library/speeches/remarks-at-a-reception-for-delegates-at-law-commissions-meeting (accessed June 19 2018).

  • Hogan Gerard and David Gwynn Morgan. 1998. Administrative Law in Ireland. Dublin: Thomson Round Hall.

  • Hopkin David M. 2003. Love Riddles Couple Formation and Local Identity in Eastern France. – Journal of Family History 28 (3): 339–363. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0363199003256014.

  • Hopkin David M. 2016. The Ecotype or a Modest Proposal to Reconnect Cultural and Social History. – Exploring Cultural History: Essays in Honour of Peter Burke edited by Melissa Calaresu Joan-Pau Rubies and Filippo de Vivo. London: Routledge 31–54.

  • Järviö-Nieminen Iris. 1959. Suomalaiset Sanomukset: Finnish Wellerisms. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran toimituksia 259. Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura.

  • Johnston David C. 1830. The Galaxy of Wit: Or Laughing Philosopher Being a Collection of Choice Anecdotes Many of which Originated in Or about “The Literary Emporium.” Boston MA: Stereotyped by J. Reed.

  • Johnston David C. 1831. The Aurora Borealis: Or Flashes of Wit; Calculated to Drown Dull Care and Eradicate the Blue Devils. Boston MA: J. H. A. Frost.

  • Johnstone Barbara. 2001. Discourse Analysis and Narrative. – The Handbook of Discourse Analysis edited by Deborah Schiffrin Deborah Tannen and Heidi E. Hamilton. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers 635–649.

  • Kalcĭk Susan. 1975. “... Like Ann’s Gynecologist or the Time I Was Almost Raped”: Personal Narratives in Women’s Rap Groups. – The Journal of American Folklore 88 (347): 3–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/539181.

  • Klapp Orrin E. 1949. The Fool as a Social Type. – American Journal of Sociology 55 (2.1): 157–162.

  • Knobel Dale T. 1981. A Vocabulary of Ethnic Perception: Content Analysis of the American Stage Irishman 1820–1860. – Journal of American Studies 15 (1): 45–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021875800005107.

  • Krikmann Arvo. 2006. Contemporary Linguistic Theories of Humour. – Folklore 33: 27–58. https://www.folklore.ee/folklore/vol33/kriku.pdf (accessed February 27 2019).

  • Kunstmann John G. 1939. The Bird that Fouls Its Nest. – Southern Folklore Quarterly 3: 75–91.

  • Labov William and Waletzky Joshua. 1967. Narrative Analysis. Seattle WA: University of Washington Press.

  • Labov William. 2013. The Language of Life and Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139519632.

  • The Law Reform Commission = An Coimisiún um Athchóiriú an Dlí. Consultation Paper on Child Sexual Abuse. 1989. Ireland The Law Reform Commission. https://www.lawreform.ie/_fileupload/consultation%20papers/cpChildSexAbuse.htm (accessed April 1 2019).

  • Linneman William R. 1974. Immigrant Stereotypes: 1880–1900. – Studies in American Humor 1 (1): 28–39.

  • Löfgren Orvar. 1976. Peasant Ecotypes: Problems in the Comparative Study of Ecological Adaptation. – Ethnologia Scandinavica 6: 100–115.

  • Löfgren Orvar. 1980. Historical Perspectives on Scandinavian Peasantries. – Annual Review of Anthropology 9: 187–215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.09.100180.001155.

  • Mac Coinnigh Marcas. 2013. The Blason Populaire: Slurs and Stereotypes in Irish Proverbial Material. – Folklore 124 (2): 157–177. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0015587X.2013.778445.

  • MacHale Des. 1994. Paddy the Englishman Paddy the Irishman and Paddy the Scotsman Jokes. Cork: Mercier Press.

  • Mac Síthigh Tomás. 1940. Cortha Cainnte na Gaedhilge. Baile Átha Cliath: Preas Náisiúnta.

  • Marshall John J. 1931. Popular Rhymes and Sayings of Ireland. Dungannon: Tyrone Printing Company.

  • Massé Henri. 1919. Essai sur le poète Saadi 1–2. Paris: Librairie Paul Geuthner.

  • Mieder Wolfgang and Wayland D. Hand. 1991. ‘(Don’t) Throw the Baby out with the Bath Water’: The Americanization of a German Proverb and Proverbial Expression. – Western Folklore 50 (4): 361–400. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1499674.

  • Mieder Wolfgang. 1996. ‘No Tickee No Washee.’ – Western Folklore 55: 1–40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1500147.

  • Narváez Peter. 2002. “I Think I Wrote a Folksong”: Popularity and Regional Vernacular Anthems. – Journal of American Folklore 115 (456): 269–282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/4129223.

  • NFC 2018 = National Folklore Collection and its collections. – Dúchas.ie. https://www.duchas.ie/en/info/cbe (accessed July 10 2018).

  • Ó Coileáin Seán. 1977. Oral or Literary? Some Strands of the Argument. – Studia Hibernica 17/18: 7–35.

  • O’Daly John. 1876. The Irish Language Miscellany: Being a Selection of Poems by the Munster Bards of the Last Century. Collected and edited by John O’Daly. Dublin: J. O’Daly.

  • Ó hAodha Nioclás. 1970. Foclóir agus Nótaí do ‘Mo Scéal Féin’ a scríobh an tAthair Peadar Ó Laoghaire. Baile Átha Cliath: Albert Folens.

  • Ó hÓgáin Dáithí. 2004. Dáithí Ó hÓgáin on Storytelling. – Storytellers of Ireland. https://www.storytellersofireland.org/documents/daithi-o-hogain-on-storytelling/ (accessed June 19 2018).

  • O’Leary Peter. 1931. Aodh Ruadh (Cuid II). Baile Átha Cliath: Brún & Ó Nualláin.

  • Ó Máille Tomás S. 1948. Sean-fhocla Chonnacht I. Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig an tSoláthair.

  • Ó Máille Tomás S. 1952. Sean-fhocla Chonnacht II. Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig an tSoláthair.

  • Ó Riain Liam. 1952. Lán-chúrsa na Gaeilge. Baile Átha Cliath: Ó Fallúin.

  • Ó Siochfhradha Pádraig. 1926. Seanfhocail na Muimhneach. Cork: Cló–chualacht Seandúna. [Reprinted in 1984 with additions by Pádraig Ua Maoileoin. Dublin: An Gúm.]

  • Ochsenbach Friedrich. 1636. Gulistan das ist Königlicher Rosengart. Tübingen: Bey Philibert Brunn.

  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary online. http://www.oed.com (accessed June 19 2018).

  • Pearl Valerie. 1961. London and the Outbreak of the Puritan Revolution: City Government and National Politics 1625–43. London: Oxford University Press.

  • Piirainen Elisabeth. 2012. Widespread Idioms in Europe and Beyond: Toward a Lexicon of Common Figurative Units. New York NY: Peter Lang. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3726/978-1-4539-0845-7.

  • Piirainen Elisabeth. 2016a. Lexicon of Common Figurative Units: Widespread Idioms in Europe and Beyond II. In cooperation with József Attila Balázsi. New York NY: Peter Lang. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3726/b10457.

  • Piirainen Elisabeth. 2016b. Phraseologie und figuratives Lexikon: Kleine Schriften. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

  • Piirainen Elisabeth and Dmitrij Dobrovol’skij. 2005. Figurative Language: Cross-cultural and Cross-linguistic Perspectives. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

  • Propp Vladimir. 1958. Morphology of the Folktale edited by Svatava Pirkova–Jakobson translated by Laurence Scott. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology.

  • Rappaport Steve. 2002. Worlds Within Worlds: Structures of Life in Sixteenth-Century London. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Rehatsek Edward. 1964. The Gulistan or Rose Garden of Sa’di. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.

  • Reinke-Williams Tim. 2009. Misogyny Jest‐Books and Male Youth Culture in Seventeenth Century England. – Gender & History 21 (2): 324–339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0424.2009.01551.x.

  • Roback Abraham A. 1944. A Dictionary of International Slurs. Cambridge MA: Sci–Art.

  • Roberts Warren E. 1953. Aarne–Thompson Type 480 in World Tradition: A Comparative Folktale Study. A PhD Thesis. Indiana University.

  • Roberts Warren E. 1966. The Black and White Bride Aa–Th 403 in Scandinavia. – Fabula 8 (1): 64–92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/fabl.1966.8.1.64.

  • Ross James. 1823. The Gulistan or Flower-Garden of Shaikh Sadî of Shiraz: translated into English by James Ross Esq. London: J. M. Richardson.

  • Said Edward. 1978. Orientalism: Western Representations of the Orient. New York NY: Pantheon.

  • Sulivan Stephen. 1774. Select Fables from Gulistan or the Bed of Roses. Translated from the Original Persian of Sadi by Stephen Sulivan Esq. London: J. Ridley St. James’s Street.

  • von Sydow Carl Wilhelm. 1932. Om traditionspridning. – Scandia 5 (2): 321–344.

  • von Sydow Carl Wilhelm. 1934. Geography and Folk-Tale Oicotypes. – Béaloideas 4: 344–355. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/20521833.

  • von Sydow Carl Wilhelm ed. 1948. Selected Papers on Folklore. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger.

  • Talpur Mir Mohammad Ali. 2011. Saggaan ra kushaada-and o sing ra basta. – Daily Times July 30 2011. https://dailytimes.com.pk/111223/saggaan-ra-kushaada-and-o-sing-ra-basta/ (accessed July 10 2018).

  • Taylor John. 1626. Wit and Mirthchargeably collected out of Tavernes Ordinaries Innes Bowling Greenes and Allyes Alehouse Tobacco shops Highwayes and Water–passages. Made up and fashioned into Clinches Bulls Quirkes Yerkes Quips and Jerkes etc. By John Taylor Water-Poet. London: James Boler.

  • Thompson Stith. 1968. Hypothetical Forms in Folktale Study. – Volkiiberlieferung: Festschrift für Kurt Ranke edited by Fritz Harkort Karel C. Peeter and Robert Wildhaber. Göttingen: Otto Swartz 369–372.

  • Uí Bhraonáin Donla ed. 2010. Seanfhocla Chonnacht. 2nd edn. Dublin: Cois Life.

  • Utley Francis Lee. 1975. The Urban and the Rural Jest (With an Excursus on the Shaggy Dog). – Hereditas: Essays and Studies presented to Professor Séamus Ó Duilearga Former Honorary Director of the Irish Folklore Commission Editor of Béaloideas 1927–1973 Patron of the Folklore of Ireland Society edited by Bo Almqvist Breandán Mac Aodha and Gearóid Mac Eoin. Dublin: Folklore of Ireland Society 344–357.

  • Waage Frederick. O. 1973. John Taylor (1577–1654) and Jacobean Popular Culture. – The Journal of Popular Culture 7 (3): 589–601.

  • Ward Joseph P. 1999. Imagining the Metropolis in Elizabethan and Stuart London. – The Country and the City Revisited: England and the Politics of Culture 1550–1850 edited by Gerarld Maclean Donna Landry and Joseph P. Ward. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 24–40.

  • Williams Raymond. 1973. The Country and the City. New York NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Wolf Eric R. 1966. Peasants. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.

  • Woodbridge Linda. 2003. Jest Books the Literature of Roguery and the Vagrant Poor in Renaissance England. – English Literary Renaissance 33 (2): 201–210.

  • Zall Paul M. 1980. The Old Age of American Jestbooks. – Early American Literature 15 (1): 3–13.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.18

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.112

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 72 72 7
PDF Downloads 43 43 6