‘Landscape’ and ‘ritual’ have been largely discussed in the social and human sciences, although their inter-relatedness has gained little scholarly attention. Drawing on earlier studies of ritual and landscape, as well as the authors′ own ethnographic works, ‘ritual landscape’ is suggested here as a useful analytical tool with which to understand how landscapes are produced, and how they, in their turn, produce certain types of being. ‘Ritual landscape’ recognises different modalities of agency, power-relation, knowledge, emotion, and movement. The article shows how the subjectivity of other-than-human beings such as ancestors, earth formations, land, animals, plants and, in general, materiality of ritual contexts, shape landscapes. We argue that ways of perceiving landscape includes a number of material and immaterial aspects indicated by ways of moving through landscapes and interacting with different human and non-human subjects that come to inhabit the world, creating relations and producing agentive ensembles and complexes.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ball Christopher. 2014. On Dicentization. - Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 23 (2): 151-173. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jola.12046.
Bateson Gregory. 1963. A Social Scientist Views the Emotions. - Expressions of the Emotions in Man edited by Peter Knapp. New York NY: International University Press 230-236.
Bateson Gregory. 1972. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. London: Paladin Books.
Benedito Julio Cezar. 2006. Religiões e religiosidades populares o conflito religioso e a simbiose de ritos e performances entre neopentecostalismo e afro-brasileiros. - Universitas Humanística 6: 231-253.
Berthomé François and Michael Houseman. 2010. Rituals and Emotions. - Religion and Society 1: 57-75.
Blanes Ruy and Diana Espírito Santo. 2014. Introduction. - The Social Life of Spirits edited by Ruy Blanes and Diana Espírito Santo. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press 1-32.
Durkheim Emil. 1947 . Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Glencoe: Free Press.
Caraveli-Chaves Anna. 1980. Bridge Between Worlds: The Greek Women’s Lament as Communicative Event. - Journal of American Folklore 93 (374): 129-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/541009.
Casey Edward. 1993. Getting back into Place. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press.
Casey Edward. 1997. The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.
Coole Diana and Samantha Frost eds. 2010. New Materialism: Ontology Agency and Politics. Durham: Duke.
Descola Philippe. 2013. Landscape Forms. Lecture Collége de France Paris March 6. http://www.college-de-france.fr/site/en-philippe-descola/course-2013-03-06-14h00.htm (accessed January 3 2017).
Goldman Marcio. 2011. An Afro-Brazilian Theory of a Creative Process: An Essay in Anthropological Symmetrization. - Challenge of Epistemology: Anthropological Perspectives edited by Christina Toren and João de Pina Cabral. New York NY: Berghahn 108-129.
Halloy Arnaud. 2013. Objects Bodies and Gods: A Cognitive Ethnography of an Ontological Dynamic in the Xangô Cult. - Making Spirits: Materiality and Transcendence in Contemporary Religions edited by Espírito Santo and Nico Tassi. New York NY; London: Tauris 133-158.
Hastrup Kirsten. 1998. A Place Apart. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Henare Amiria; Martin Holbraad and Sari Wastell. 2007. An Introduction. - Thinking Through Things: Theorizing Artefacts Ethnographically edited by Amiria Henare Martin Holbraad and Sari Wastell. New York NY: Routledge 1-31.
Hirsch Eric and Michael O’Hanlon. 1995. Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on Place and Space. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Holbraad Martin. 2011. Can Things Speak? - Open Anthropology Cooperative Press. http://openanthcoop.net/press/2011/01/12/can-the-thing-speak/ (accessed May 22 2016).
Holbraad Martin. 2012. Things as Concepts: Anthropology and Pragmatology. - Savage Objects edited by Godofredo Pereira. Lissabon: Guimarães 17-30.
Honkasalo Marja-Liisa. 2016. After Sacrifice. Words and Deeds for Protection and Cure. - Suomen Antropologi: Journal of the Finnish Anthropological Society (Special Issue: Ritual Intimacy - Ritual Publicity: Engaging with Plurality) 41 (4): 29-45.
Houseman Michael. 2006. Relationality. - Theorizing Rituals: Issues Topics Approaches Concepts edited by Jens Kreinath Jan Snoek and Michael Stausberg. Leiden: Brill 413-428.
Houseman Michael and Carlo Severi. 1998. Naven or the Other Self: A Relational Approach to Ritual Action. Boston MA: Bill.
Hubert Henry and Marcel Mauss. 1964 . Sacrifice. Its Nature and Functions. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ingold Tim. 1993. The Temporality of the Landscape. - World Archaeology 25 (2): 152-174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.1993.9980235.
Ingold Tim. 2000. The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood Dwelling and Skill. London; New York NY: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203466025.
Ingold Tim. 2009. Against Space: Place Movement Knowledge. - Boundless Worlds. An Anthropological Approach to Movement edited by Peter Wynn Kirby. New York NY; Oxford: Berghahn Books 29-43.
Ingold Tim and Gisli Pálsson eds. 2013. Biosocial Becomings: Integrating Social and Biological Anthropology. Cambridge; New York NY: Cambridge University Press.
Kelly John D. and Martha Kaplan. 1990. History Structure and Ritual. - Annual Review of Anthropology 19: 119-150. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.001003.
Kirby Peter Wynn. 2009. Lost in ‘Space’: Anthropological Approach to Movement. - Boundless Worlds. An Anthropological Approach to Movement edited by Peter Wynn Kirby. New York NY; Oxford: Berghahn Books 1-27.
Latour Bruno. 2005. Reassembling the Social. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Latour Bruno. 2012. An Inquiry into the Modes of Existence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Lambek Michael. 1999. Ancestors Power and History in Madagascar. Edited by Karen Middleton. Leiden: Brill.
Lundell Eleonora. 2010. Rahat ja Henki: tutkimus kääntymisestä uushelluntailaiseen Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus -kirkkoon Rio de Janeirossa. A Master Dissertation. University of Helsinki Department of World Cultures.
Lundell Eleonora. 2016. Exú´s Work: The Agency of Ritual Objects in Southeast Brazilian Umbanda. - Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics 10 (1): 43-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jef-2016-0003.
Massey Doreen. 1994. Space Place and Gender. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Massey Doreen. 2005. For Space. Los Angeles CA: Sage.
Metcalf Peter. 1991. Celebrations of Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803178.
Moore Jerry D. 2004. The Social Basis of Sacred Spaces in the Prehispanic Andes: Ritual Landscapes of the Dead in Chimú and Inka Societies. - Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 11 (1): 83-124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JARM.0000014348.86882.50.
Morphy Howard. 1991. Ancestral Connections. Art and Aborginal System of Knowledge. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Myers Fred. 2013. Emplacement and Displacement: Perceiving the Landscape Through Aboriginal Australian Acrylic Painting. - Ethnos 78 (4): 435-63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00141844.2012.726635.
Obeyesekere Gananath. 1981. Medusa’s Hair. An Essay On Personal Symbols And Religious Experience. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Pérez Patrick. 2012. Elements of Amerindian Landscape: The Arizona Hopi. - Landscapes beyond Land edited by Arnar Árnason Nicolas Ellison Jo Vergunst and Andrew Whitehouse. London: Berghahn 83-97.
Robb John G. 1998. The ‘Ritual Landscape’ Concept in Archaeology: A Heritage Construction. - Landscape Research 23 (2): 159-174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01426399808706533.
Robbins Joel. 2009. Pentecostal Networks and the Spirit of Globalization. - Social Analysis 53: 55-66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3167/sa.2009.530104.
Robbins Joel and Johanna Sumiala. 2016. Ritual Intimacy - Ritual Publicity: Revisiting Ritual Theory and Practice in Plural Societies. - Suomen Antropologi: Journal of the Finnish Anthropological Society (Special Issue: Ritual Intimacy - Ritual Publicity: Engaging with Plurality) 41 (4): 1-5.
Sansi Roger. 2013. We Worship Nature: The Given and the Made in Brazilian Candomblé. - Making Spirits: Materiality and Transcendence in Contemporary Religions edited by Diana Espírito Santo and Nico Tassi. New York NY; London: Tauris 81-104.
Santos-Granero Fernando. 1998. Writing History into the Landscape: Space Myth and Ritual in Contemporary Amazonia. - American Anthropologist 25 (2): 128-148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/ae.1918.104.22.168.
Taussig Michael. 2009. What Color is the Sacred? Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226789996.001.0001.
Tilley Christopher. 1994. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places Paths and Monuments. Oxford: Berg.
Turner Victor. 1967. The Forest of Symbols. Aspects of Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Turner Victor. 1977. Sacrifice as Quintessential Process: Prophylaxis or Abandonment? - History of Religions 16 (3): 189-215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/462765.
Virtanen Pirjo Kristiina. 2011. Constancy in Continuity: Native Oral History Iconography and the Earthworks of the Upper Purus. - Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology Linguistics and Ethnohistory edited by Alf Hornborg and Jonathan D. Hill. Boulder CO: University Press of Colorado 279-298.
Virtanen Pirjo Kristiina. 2015. Fatal Substances: Apurinã’s Dangers Movement and Kinship. - Indiana 32: 85-103.
Virtanen Pirjo Kristiina and Sanna Saunaluoma. Forthcoming. Visualization and Movement as Configurations of Human-non-human Engagements: The Geometric Earthwork Landscapes of the Upper Purus Brazil. - American Anthropologist.
Wright Robin. 2013. Mysteries of the Jaguar Shamans of the Northwest Amazon. Lincoln NE: University of Nebraska Press.