Implementation of the orthodoxy test as a validity check on experimental field emission data

Mohammad M. Allaham 1 , Richard G. Forbes 2 , Alexandr Knápek 3 , and Marwan S. Mousa 1
  • 1 Surface Physics and Materials Technology lab, Department of Physics, Mutah University, 61710, Al-Karak, Jordan
  • 2 Advanced Technology Institute & Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH, Guildford
  • 3 Institute of Scientific Instruments of the CAS, , 612 64, Brno

Abstract

In field electron emission (FE) studies, it is important to check and analyse the quality and validity of experimental current-voltage data, which is usually plotted in one of a small number of standard forms. These include the so-called Fowler-Nordheim (FN), Millikan-Lauritsen (ML) and Murphy-Good (MG) plots. The Field emission orthodoxy test is a simple quantitative test that aims to check for the reasonableness of the values of the parameter “scaled field” that can be extracted from these plots. This is done in order to establish whether characterization parameters extracted from the plot will be reliable or, alternatively, likely to be spurious. This paper summarises the theory behind the orthodoxy test, for each of the plot forms, and confirms that it is easy to apply it to the newly developed MG plot. A simple, new, accessible web application has been developed that extracts scaled-field values from any of these three plot forms, and tests for lack of field emission orthodoxy.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] A. Modinos, Field, Thermionic, Secondary Electron Emission Spectroscopy, New York, Plenum, 1984.

  • [2] G. N. Fursey, Field Emission in Vacuum Microelectronics, New York: Kluwer, 2005.

  • [3] S.-D. Liang, Quantum Tunneling Field Electron Emission Theories, World Scientific: Singapore, 2014.

  • [4] A. Evtukh, H. Hartnagel, O. Yilmazoglu, H. Mimura, and D. Pavlidis, Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices, Chichester, UK, Wiley, 2015.

  • [5] K. L. Jensen, Introduction to the Physics of Electron Emission, Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2018.

  • [6] R. G. Forbes, “Why Converting Field Emission Voltages to Macroscopic Fields before Making a Fowler-Nordheim Plot Has Often Led to Spurious Characterization Results”, Journal of Vacuum Science Technology B, vol. 37, p. 051802, 2019.

  • [7] T. E. Stern, B. S. Gossling, and R. H. Fowler, “Further Studies in the Emission of Electrons from Cold Metals”, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A, vol. 124, pp. 699–723, 1929.

  • [8] R. G. Forbes, J. H. B. Deane, A. Fischer, and M. S. Mousa, “Fowler-Nordheim Plot Analysis: A Progress Report”, Jordan Journal of Physics, vol. 8, pp. 125–147, 2015.

  • [9] R. A. Millikan and C. C. Lauritsen, “Relations of Field-Currents to Thermionic Currents”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 14, pp. 45–49, 1928.

  • [10] R. G. Forbes, “Use of Millikan-Lauritsen Plots, Rather than Fowler-Nordheim Plots”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 105, p. 114313, 2009.

  • [11] R. G. Forbes, “The Murphy-Good plot: A Better Method of Analysing Field Emission Data”, Royal Society Open Science, vol. 6, 190912, 2019.

  • [12] R. G. Forbes, “Development of a Simple Quantitative Test for Lack of Field Emission Orthodoxy”, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A, vol. 469, p. 20133027, 2013.

  • [13] M. M. Allaham, R. G. Forbes, and M. S. Mousa, “Applying the Field Emission Orthodoxy Test to Murphy-Good plots”, Jordan Journal of Physics, in press, March 2020.

  • [14] J. H. B. Deane and R. G. Forbes, “The Formal Derivation of an Exact Series Expansion for the Principal Schottky-Nordheim Barrier Function v “, Journal of Physics A: Mathematical Theoretical vol. 41, p. 395301, 2008.

  • [15] R. G. Forbes and J. H. B. Deane, “Transmission Coefficients for the Exact Triangular Barrier: an Exact General Analytical Theory that can Replace Fowler & Nordheim’s 1928 Theory”, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A, vol. 467, pp. 2927–2947, 2011, See Electronic Supplementary Material for information about universal constants used in field emission.

  • [16] International Standards Organization (ISO) International Standard ISO 80000-1:2009 Quantities and Units Part 1: General, Geneva: ISO, 2009, Section 6.

  • [18] W. P. Dyke and J. K. Trolan, “Field Emission: Large Current Densities”, Physical Review vol. 89, pp. 799–808, 1953.

  • [19] M. S. Mousa, “Influence of a Dielectric Coating on Field Electron Emission from Micro-Point Electron Sources”, Surface Interface Analysis, vol. 39, pp. 102–110, 1986.

  • [20] W. Schottky, “¨Uber den Einfluss von Strukturwirkungen, besonders der Thomsonschen Bildkraft, auf die Elektronenemission der Metale”, Physikalische Zeitschrift, vol. 15, pp. 872–878, 1914.

  • [21] J. J. Thomson, Conduction of Electricity through Gases, 1st ed, Cambridge University Press, page 386, 1903.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search