The Shadow Economy and Its Impact on National Competitiveness: The Case of Slovenia
The paper presents a socioeconomic analysis of the phenomena of informal economic activity. It is argued that the shadow economy has been beneficial for Slovenian society since the 19th century and has significantly contributed to the success of the Slovenian economy under the socialist regime. During Slovenia's transitional phase it has stimulated the formal economy, soothed social tensions and allowed export-oriented enterprises to remain internationally competitive by paying lower wages and obtaining cheaper inputs. However, it hinders innovation, impedes entrepreneurship and maintains the status quo, and thus represents an obstacle for future economic development in Slovenia.
Acs J. Z., Audretsch D. B. (1988), Innovation in large and small firms: An empirical analysis, American Economic Review, Vol 78., No. 4, 1988
Acs J. Z., Audretsch D. B. (1990), Innovation and small firms, MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 1990
Acs J. Z., Audretsch D. B. (1991), "R&D, firm size and innovative activity" in Acs J. Z., Audretsch D. B. (ed.) Innovation and technological change, Harvester Wheatsheaf, London, 1991, 1988, 1990, 1991
Bucar, M. (2002), Podjetniki, inoviranje in drzava (Entrepreneurs, Innovation and Government). Ljubljana: Podjetnik.
Cepic M. et al. (1979), Zgodovina Slovencev (History of Slovenes), Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalozba.
Dmitrović T., Zupan N. (2001), The consistency of human resource management and competitiveness policy in Slovenian companies, South_East Europe Review, Vol. 3, 2001
Economist Intelligence Unit (1997), The unrecorded economy: Hidden Strength, Business Middle East. 16:31.
Eilat, Y., Zinnes C. (2000), "The Evolution of the Shadow Economy in Transition Countries: Consequences for Economic Growth and Donor Assistance", CAER II Discussion Paper, No. 83, United States Agency for International Development.
European Commission (2004), Undeclared work in an enlarged Union: An analysis of undeclared work, Brussels: Employment & European Social Fund, pp. 1-227.
Feige E. L. (1990), Defining and Estimating Underground and Informal Economies: The New Institutional Economics Approach, World Development, 18 no.7 pp. 989 - 1002.
Fleming M. H.; Roman J., Farrell G. (2000), The Shadow Economy, Journal of International Affairs, Vol 53, Issue 2, pp. 387 - 410.
Gërxhani K. (1999), The Informal Sector in Developed and Less Developed Countries, Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper, pp. 1-29.
Glas M. (1991), Siva ekonomija v svetu in v slovenskem gospodarstvu (Shadow economy in the world and in Slovenian economy), Ljubljana: Ekonomska fakulteta, pp. 3-42.
Groff Ferjančič M. (2000), Vloga velikih podjetij pri razvoju idrijskega gospodarstva, Master's thesis, Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana
Hofstede G. (2001), Culture's consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, Thousand Okas etc.: Sage Publications.
Institute for Management Development (2002), The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2002, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 7-564.
Institute for Management Development (2004), The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2004, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 5-802.
Institute for Management Development (2005), The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2005, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 6-677.
Institute for Management Development (2006), The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2006, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 4-527.
Jaklič M. (2002), The Institutional Development of the Slovenian Financial System as a Basis for Slovenia's Economic Development and Competitiveness, Paper presented at 2002 EGOS conference, Barcelona.
Jaklič M., Zagoršek H. (2002), Rationality and Perception of Shareholder Value by Slovenian Managers, Economic and Business Review, Vol 4, No 1, pp. 5 - 25.
Jaklič M., Whitley R., Hočevar, M. (2000), Success Without Shock Therapy in Eastern Europe: the Case of Slovenia, in Quack S., Morgan G., Whitley R. (editor). (2000), National Capitalisms, Global Competition and Economic Performance, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 291-316, ISBN 90-272-33004
Kaufmann D., Kaliberda A. (1996), "Integrating the Unofficial Economy into the Dynamics of Post-Socialist Economies: A Framework of Analysis and Evidence," in Economic Transition in the Newly Independent States, B. Kaminski editor, Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe Press.
Kristensen P. H., Jaklic M. (1998), Culture and Local Continuity in the Context of Globalization, EIBA Conference Proceedings, Jerusalem
Kovacic M. (1996), Socio-ekonomska in velikostna struktura kmetij v Sloveniji (Socio-economic and Size Structure of Farms in Slovenia), Ljubljana: Institut za agrarno ekonomiko
Kukar S. (1995), Siva ekonomija v Sloveniji (Grey Economy in Slovenia). IB Revija, 29 (1-2-3), p. 16-25.
Lacko M. (1999), Hidden Economy and Unknown Quantity? Comparative Analyses of Hidden Economies in Transition Countries in 1989 - 95. Working paper 9905, Department of Economics, University of Linz, Austria.
Lacko M. (2000), Hidden Economy - an Unknown Quantity? Comparative Analyses of Hidden Economies in Transition Countries in 1989 - 95. Economics of Transition, Vol. 8., No. 1., 2000, pp. 117-149.
Porter M. E. (2002), Enhancing the Microeconomic Foundations of Prosperity: The Current Competitiveness Index, The Global Competitiveness Report 2001-2002 (pp. 52-74). New York, NY: Oxford University Press (World Economic Forum).
Portes A., Castells M., Beneton L. A. (1989), The Informal Economy: Studies in Advanced and Less Developed Coutries. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Potocnik J., Senjur M., Stiblar F., (1996), Approaching Europe - Growth, Competitiveness and Integration, Ljubljana: Institute of Macroeconomic Analysis and Development
Rebernik M., Tominc P., Pušnik K. (2005), Slovene Entrepreneurship Monitor, Maribor: IPMMP
Rosser J. B., Rosser M. V., Ahmed E. (2000), Income Inequality and the Economy in Transition Economies, Journal of Comparative Economics, March, 2000, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 156-171.
Rosser J. B., Rosser M. V., Ahmed E. (2003), Multiple Unofficial Economy Equilibria and Income Distribution Dynamics in Systemic Transition, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Spring 2003, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 425-447.
Schneider F. (2000), Dimensions of the Shadow Economy The Independent Review, Vol 5, No 1, pp. 81 - 91.
Schneider F., Enste D. H. (2000), "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes and Consequences." Journal of Economic Literature 38:1, pp. 77-114.
Schneider F., Enste D. H. (2002), The Shadow Economy: An International Survey, Cambridge University Press, pp. 6-193.
Schwab K., Porter M. E., Sachs J. D. (2002), The Global Competitiveness Report, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Smith P. (1994), Assessing the Size of the Underground Economy: The Canadian Statistical Perspectives. Canadian Economic Observer, 3.16 - 33, cited in Schneider and Enste, p. 5.
Žnidaršič J. (2003), Razvijanje podjetnih lastnosti ljudi v izobraževalnem sistemu (Developing entrepreneurial attitudes in educational process), Master's Thesis, Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana