The Unemployed Workers’ Perceptions of Stress and Employment Prospects in Macedonia: The Role of Alternative Adjustment Mechanisms

Open access


Depressed labour market conditions in Macedonia manifested by high and persistent unemployment rate, strong segmentation and prevailing long-term unemployment is considered as a heritage of more than two decades long period of transition. Unemployment has a number of negative consequences such a decreased income which is assumed to influence the subjective experience of unemployment. The negative macroeconomic shocks in Macedonia have been mitigated due to the strengthened role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms such as: employment in the informal sector, emigration and inactivity. However, their impact on the unemployed workers’ perceptions of stress and future labour market prospects is less clear-cut. In this paper we use results from a survey carried out on a sample of unemployed workers in Macedonia in order to identify the psychological implications of unemployment by assessing the perceived stress and employment prospects with particular reference to the role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Bernabe S. 2002. Informal Employment in Countries in Transition: A Conceptual Framework Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion London Working paper No.56.

  • Blanchard O. 1997. The Economics of Post-Communist Transition Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Blanchflower D. 2001. Unemployment well-being and wage curves in Eastern and Central Europe Journal of the Japanese and International Economies 15(4): 364-402.

  • Bordea E. And Pellegrini A. 2014. The Evaluation of the Levels of Stress Anxiety and Depression for the Unemployed Persons International Journal of Academic Research 6(1): 325-332.

  • Cazes S. and Nesporova A. 2003. Labour Markets in Transition Balancing Flexibility and Security in Central and Eastern Europe International Labour Office Geneva.

  • Clark A. 2003. Unemployment as a Social Norm: Psychological Evidence from Panel Data Journal of Labour Economics 21(2): 323-351.

  • De Fazio et al. 2016 Unemployment perceived health status and coping: A study in Southern Italy Work 53: 219-224.

  • European Commission 2016. Duration of Unemployment and Self-Perceived Health in Europe.

  • European Training Foundation 2007. Labour markets in the Western Balkans Challenges for the future.

  • Gruen C. and Klasen S. 2012. Has transition improved wellbeing? Economic Systems 36(1): 11-30.

  • Jones S. and Riddell C. 1998. The Measurement of Unemployment: An Empirical Approach Econometrica 67(1): 147-162.

  • Kingdon G. and Knight J. 2006. The Measurement of Unemployment when Unemployment is high Labour Economics 13(3): 291-315.

  • Lazarus R. And Folkman S. 1984 Stress Appraisal and Coping New York: Springer.

  • Meer P. 2014. Gender Unemployment and Subjective Well-Being: Why Being Unemployed is Worse for Men than for Women Social Indicators Research 115: 23-44.

  • Micevska M. 2008. The Labour Market in Macedonia: A Labour Demand Analysis LABOUR 22(2): 345-368.

  • Nikoloski D. 2009. The sustainable rate of unemployment in transition countries – A case study for Macedonia VDM Verlag.

  • Nikoloski D. 2012. The determinants of the labour market segmentation in transition countries with particular reference to Macedonia Der Donauraum 52(3-4): 429-444.

  • Ochsen C. 2011. Subjective Well-Being and Aggregate Unemployment: Further Evidence Scottish Journal of Political Economy 58(5): 634-655.

  • Oesch D. and Lipps O. 2013. Does Unemployment Hurt Less if There is More of it Around? A Panel Analysis of Life Satisfaction in Germany and Switzerland European Social Review 29(5): 955-967.

  • Orosa F. 2013. Psychosocial wellbeing in the Central and Eastern European transition: An overview and systematic bibliographic review International Journal of Psychology 48(4): 481-491.

  • Pechijareski L. and Rocheska S. 1998. Transition in Macedonia between theory and practice NIP Metafora Prilep.

  • Pelzer B. Schaffrath S. and Vernaleken I. 2014. Coping with unemployment: The impact of unemployment on mental health personality and social interactions skills Work 48: 289-295.

  • Svejnar J. 2002. Labour Market Flexibility in Central and East Europe William Davidson Working Paper 496.

  • Tay L. and Kuykendall L. 2013. Promoting happiness: The malleability of individual and societal subjective wellbeing International Journal of Psychology 48(3): 159-176.

  • Tøge A. 2016. Health effects of unemployment in Europe (2008-2011): a longitudinal analysis of income and financial strain as mediating factors International Journal of Equity and Health Vol.15 No.75.

  • Waters L. 2000. Coping with unemployment: a literature review and presentation of a new model International Journal of Management Reviews 2(2): 169-182.

  • Winefield A. 2002. Unemployment Underemployment Occupational Stress and Psycological Well-Being Australian Journal of Management 27 Special issue pp. 137-148.

  • Winkelmann L. and Winkelmann R. 1998. Why Are the Unemployed So Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data Economica 65: 1-15.

  • Winkelmann R. 2009. Unemployment Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being Journal of Happiness Studies 10: 421-430.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.86

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.224
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.395

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 234 151 1
PDF Downloads 149 104 2