Factors Favouring the Development of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Critically Ill Patients

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Abstract

Clostridium difficile, an anaerobic, spore-forming, toxin-forming, gram-positive bacillus present in the bacterial flora of the colon is the principal cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in adults.

Aim: Assessment of favouring factors of Clostridium difficile infections as well as the interactions between them, in critically ill hospitalized patients undergoing complex medical and surgical treatments.

Material and Methods: A retrospective case-control study involving eighty patients admitted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the County Clinical Emergency Hospital Tîrgu-Mureş was conducted between January and October 2014. Patients aged eighteen years and over, who had undergone complex medical and surgical treatment, were divided into two subgroups. Group 1 included patients who developed diarrhoea but were not diagnosed as having a Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Group 2 included patients who developed diarrhoea due to CDI as indicated by a positive culture and the expression of exotoxin. The assessed parameters were age, length of stay (LOS), antibiotic spectrum, association with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) or H2-receptor antagonists, immunological status, the presence or lack of gastrointestinal tract surgery.

Results: The mean age was 64.6 years with an average LOS of 10 days. Fifty-six percent of patients came to the ICU from internal medicine wards and forty-three percent from surgical wards. 20.5% of them were immunosuppressed. Co-association of ceftriaxone and pantoprazole significantly increased the risk of CDI compared to co-administration of any other antibiotic or pantoprazole (p=0.01). The odds ratio for Pantoprazole together with any antibiotic versus antibiotic therapy alone was significantly higher (p=0.018) with a sevenfold increase in the risk of positive exotoxin increase.

Conclusions: Antibiotic use is associated with “no risk to develop CDI” in the first five days of administration. PPIs associated therapy increased the risk of CDI in first seventy-two hours regardless of the antibiotic type, and contributes to an active expression of CD exotoxin.

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