The Survey Program of Ernő Foerk on the Türbe of Pécs

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Abstract

Ernő Foerk (1868-1934) born 150 years ago has significant oeuvre in the field of monument preservation and architectural education. As professor, one of his achievements was the organisation of summer survey camps named as ‘szünidei felvételek’ (vacation records) which was also accessible in published form. In the year of 1917 under his supervision, his students have surveyed all the scored Ottoman monuments of Hungary. In the following year these survey drawings were published with a brief summary of the history of Ottoman architecture in the territory of Hungary. Our paper is to submit the general circumstances of the Ottoman survey program supervised by Ernő Foerk with its historical background and the analysis of the methodology of the survey by the example of the türbe of Pécs.

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  • [1.] Pusztai L. Foerk Ernő műemlékvédelmi munkásságáról. [On the Monument Preservation Works of Ernő Foerk] in Pusztai L. Hadik A. Az O.M.F. Magyar Építészeti Múzeumának kiállítása Foerk Ernő (1868-1934) építész műveiből. [The Exhibition of the National Inspectorate of Monuments about the Works of Ernő Foerk (1868-1934) Architect] Budapest: O.M.F. 1984. 14.

  • [2.] Kovács G. The History of the Summer Survey of the Hungarian Royal Public Higher Architectural Industrial School – in the Mirror of Collection Resources Ybl Yournal of Built Environment 7(2019) 2.

  • [3.] MMA MÉM MDK Diary of Ernő Foerk 71.

  • [4.] In the late 17th century Jakob Tollius copied certain inscriptions in the mosque of Érsekújvár (today Nové Zámky Slovakia) and in the 19th century Josef Hammer-Purgstall copied translated and published some inscriptions from the Suleiman Djami at Szigetvár both of which remain in situ. Ottoman architectural remains such as the Hamam of Valide Sultana in Eger and the Djami of Malkoç Bey in Siklós aroused the interest of Flóris Rómer. See: Gerő Gy. The History of Ottoman-Turkish Archaeological research in Hungary In Archaeology of the Ottoman Period in Hungary eds. Ibolya Gerelyes Gyöngyi Kovács Budapest: Hungarian National Museum 2003; Hammer-Purgstall J. ‘tudósítása a’ pécsi főtemplomban található keleti felírásokról [Report on the Oriental Excavation in the Main Church of Pécs]’ Magyar Academiai Értesítő 4 (1844) 2 55-63.

  • [5.] A non. Török épületmaradványok hazánkban [Turkish Building Fragments in our Country] Vasárnapi Ujság 2 (1855) 11 85-86. Sudár B. Dzsámik és mecsetek a hódolt Magyarországon. [Djamis and Mosques in the Ottoman Hungary] Budapest: MTA Bölcsészettudományi Kutatóközpont Történettudományi Intézet 2014. 30.

  • [6.] Linzbauer F. X. Führer Seiner Majestat Sultan Abdul Aziz Khan bei Besichtigung der Türkischen Baudenkmäler in Ofen [Guide of the Turkish Monuments in Pest for His Majesty Sultan Abdul Aziz Han] Pest 1867.; Némethy L. Török mecsetek Budán. [Turkish Mosques in Buda] Budapest 1878.

  • [7.] Gerecze P. Magyarország műemlékei [Monuments of Hungary] Vol 2. Budapest: Hornyánszky 1906.

  • [8.] Besides the fact that many researches and monographies were made on the Ottoman buildings in Hungary the next summaries which directly follows the work of Foerk and contain both survey drawings and archival researches were published in the 1970s-1980 by the Turkish scholar Ekrem Hakkı Ayverdi and his colleagues (See: Ayverdi E. H. Avrupa’da Osmanlı Mimârî Eserleri. Romanya Macaristan I. [Ottoman Architectural Monuments in Europe. Romania Hungary I.] İstanbul: İstanbul Fetih Cemiyeti 1977.) and on the Hungarian side by Győző Gerő and József Molnár. (Molnár J. A török világ emlékei Magyarországon. Budapest: Corvina 1976.; Gerő Gy.. Az oszmán-török építészet Magyarországon. (Dzsámik türbék fürdők). Művészettörténeti füzetek 12. kötet. Budapest 1980.)

  • [9.] Foerk E. Török emlékek Magyarországban. [Turkish Relics in Hungary] In: A Magyar Királyi Állami Felső Építő Ipariskola Szünidei Felvételei 1912-1942. Reprint kiadás. [The Vacation Records of Hungarian Royal Public Higher Architectural Industrial School 1912-1942. Reprint Edition.] Budapest TERC 2002. 1.

  • [10.] O láh P. „A török és a magyar turanizmus kapcsolata a 20. század első felében.” [The Relationship of the Turkish and Hungarian Turanism in the First Half of the 20th Century] Keletkutatás 2012 spring.; Ablonczy B. Keletre magyar! A magyar turanizmus története. [To East Hungarian! The History of Hungarian Turanism. Budapest: Jaffa 2016.

  • [11.] The architects working within the ideology of Turanism used Eastern Central Asian sometimes Islamic motifs on their works as we can see on the Museum of Applied Arts designed by Ödön Lechner and Gyula Pártos in Budapest between 1891-1896 the plans of Historical Hall by Ignác Alpár designed for the Millennial Exhibition competition in 1893. The ‘Hungarian Scientific Institution of Constantinople’ (Konstantinápolyi Magyar Tudományos Intézet) organised scientific historical research of Byzantine and Ottoman architecture art history and archaeology purchasing scholarships for researchers to work in Constantinople. One of the most significant persons who researched at the Institution was the architect Károly Kós (1883-1977) who carried out research not only on the Byzantine and Ottoman architectural heritage of Constantinople but also on the history of its urban development and housing; in this aspect he emphasised the importance of its preservation. See: Akyürek G. A Comparative Reading of the Pursuit into the ’East’ for National Expression in Turkish and Hungarian Architecture. In Thirteenth International Congress of Turkish Art eds.: Ibolya Gerelyes and Géza Dávid Budapest: Hungarian National Museum 2009. pp. 59-60.; Kós K. İstanbul. Şehir Tarihi ve Mimarisi. [Istanbul. Urban History and Architecture]. İstanbul: Yeditepe 2017.

  • [12.] In Hungarian: 1916. aug. 25. 56.154 VI. B. Körrendelet. A Keleti Kultur-Központ feladata s a magyar iskolákban elhelyezett török ifjak neveléséről. See: the Yearbook of the Academy in the years 1916/17. 65.

  • [13.] S choditsch L. A Budapesti M. Kir. Állami Felső Építőipariskola Értesítője az 1917/18. iskolai évről. Huszadik Év. [The Report of the Hungarian Royal Public Higher Architectural Industrial School about the 1917/17 Academic Year. Twentieth Year.] Budapest 1918. 12-13.

  • [14.] Archives of Budapest University of Technology and Economics BMEL_EPK_K-17_Szemih_Rusztem 1918. See: Gümüş M. D. A Turkish Architect at Technical University of Budapest: Semih Rüstem. Periodica Polytechnica Architecture 46 1. (2015): 39.

  • [15.] Semih Rüstem (1898-1946) the important link of the Turkish-Hungarian architectural relations of the early 20th century has started his education at the first institute for architectural education in the Ottoman Empire: at Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi (Fine Arts Academy) in Istanbul after that travelled to Budapest with the support of Turanian Association. He was firstly studied at Hungarian Royal Public Higher Architectural Industrial Schoolaccording to the yearbooks and participated the survey program - he draw the türbe of Gül Baba in Buda and the tombstones of Temesvár. In 1918 he continued his education in Royal Joseph Polytechnicum as his course book reports. After returning to Istanbul between 1929-1933 he worked as freelance architect. As an example he designed the Adana Slaughterhouse Project and used modernist influenced forms and Ottoman Revivalism with elements from his experiences of Budapest. The same time he was instructor at “İstanbul Fine Arts Academy”- as it can be read from his letters wrote to Ernő Foerk. His letters which he wrote to Ernő Foerk in 1923 were signed in two languages French and Hungarian as: Sémihe Rustéme Séfay Architecte Professeur École Imperiale D’Arts et Métiers /Szemih Rusztem Szefai Építész Török Császári Felső Építő Ipariskolai Tanár (Semih Rüstem Sefai Turkish Imperial Higher Construction Trade Academy Instructor). In 1933 Semih Rüstem was appointed to the Ankara Development /Housing Directorate as director. In this position he was an important figure of the Early Republican era of the Turkish Architecture. During the period called the Second National Architectural Movement (Turkish: İkinci Ulusal Mimarlık Akımı) Rüstem worked in the construction of the new republic capital Ankara according to the urban plan of German architect Herman Jansen. In this function he travelled once more to Hungary: to Szeged as an article in 1933 reports. Then he described the contemporary development process of the new capital and also remembers to his education in Hungary. See: Magyar L. Szemih Rüsztem utja a magyar müegyetemtől Ankara közmunkatanácsának igazgatói állásáig [The Way of Semih Rüstem from the Hungarian Polytechnicum until the Director Chair of the Ankara Public Work Directorate]. Délmagyarország Volume 9 (23rd June 1933) No 140 4.; Gümüş M. D. A Turkish Architect at Technical University of Budapest: Semih Rüstem. Periodica Polytechnica Architecture 46 1. (2015): 38-45. https://doi.org/10.3311/PPar.8205; Aslanoğlu İ. Erken Cumhuriyet Dönemi Mimarlığı (1923-1938). [The Architecture of the Early Republican Period (1923-1938).] İstanbul: Bilge Kültür Sanat (1980) 2010.; Bozdoğan S. Modernizm ve Ulusun İnşası. Erken Cumhuriyet Türkiyesi’nde Mimari Kültür. [Modernism and Nation Building: Turkish Architectural Culture in the Early Republic]. İstanbul: Metis 2012. The letters of Semih Rüstem wrote in 27th April 1923 can be found in MMA MÉM MDK.

  • [16.] 26th September 1917: Belgrade 29th September 1917: Üszküb (Skopje) 1st October 1917: Mitrovica 6th October 1917: Decsán 7th October 1917: Gyakova (Gjakovë). 9th October 1917: Prizren 16th October 1917: Szkutari (Skodra) 17th October 1917: Vorra 20th October 1917: Tirana 23th October 1917: Skodra 25th October 1917: Szarajevo (Sarajevo) 27th October 1917: Budapest.

  • [17.] Foerk E. Foerk Ernő építész a Felső Építő Ipariskola tanára jelentése. [Report of Architect Foerk Ernő the Lecturer of the Hungarian Royal Public Higher Architectural Industrial School]. MMA MÉM MDK

  • [18.] Foerk E. Balkáni levelek.[Balkan Letters]. Budapest: Korvin Testvérek 1918. [MMA MÉM MDK]

  • [19.] Vukoszávlyev Z. Foerk Ernő szerb-ortodox templom-tipológiája. [The Serbian Orthodox Church Typology of Ernő Foerk]. Presented on the Symposium organised for the 150th Anniversary of the birth of Ernő Foerk at Szent István University Miklós Ybl Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering 20th November 2019

  • [20.] The Yearbook has mentioned them as ‘Achmet Hikmet török főkonzul Ő Exellentiája és Abdul Latif török főpap’ [His Excellency Achmet Hikmet Turkish Consul General and Abdul Latif Turkish ‘Pontifical’] who were ‘excessively interested in the situation of the Turkish youths’. See: Schoditsch L. A Budapesti M. Kir. Állami Felső Építőipariskola Értesítője az 1917/18. iskolai évről. Huszadik Év. [The Report of the Hungarian Royal Public Higher Architectural Industrial School about the 1917/17 Academic Year. Twentieth Year.] Budapest 1918. 8.

  • [21.] MMA MÉM MDK Archives Diary of Ernő Foerk 73.

  • [22.] A cun H. Türk Kültüründe Taşlar [Stones in the Turkish Culture] Ankara: Atatürk Kültür Merkezi Yayınları 2014. 16.

  • [23.] Foerk E. Török emlékek Magyarországban. [Turkish Relics in Hungary] In: A Magyar Királyi Állami Felső Építő Ipariskola Szünidei Felvételei 1912-1942. Reprint kiadás. [The Vacation Records Hungarian Royal Public Higher Architectural Industrial School 1912-1942. Reprint Edition.] Budapest TERC 2002. 1.

  • [24.] Foerk E. A magyar építőművészet rövid története: magyar műemlékek nyomán [The Brief History of the Hungarian Building Art upon Hungarian Monuments] Kecskemét 1929.

  • [25.] MMA MÉM MDK Archives Diary of Ernő Foerk 73.

  • [26.] E.g. the rectangular planned two floored brick building in Szigetvár was named as “ritual church” however according to the researches the original function was residential.

  • [27.] Idris Baba belonged to the bektashi order of the dervishes according to the clarification of Balázs Sudár. Sudár B. A pécsi Idrisz Baba-türbe. [The Türbe of Idris Baba in Pécs] Budapest: Forster Gyula National Heritage and Asset Management Centre 2013. The identification of the building was made during the early 1900’s according to the records of Ibrahim Pechevi.

  • [28.] The exact amount of the former memorial buildings is still an opened question. According to Ekrem Hakkı Ayverdi the number of kabrs and türbes are minimum 17. Balázs Sudár imparts 18 for the minimal number of türbes in the territory of Hungary.According to Ekrem Hakkı Ayverdi the number of kabr and türbe buildings are at least 17 according to Balázs Sudár there was at least 18 türbes in the territory of Hungary however this number can be also 22. Ayverdi E. H. Avrupa’da Osmanlı Mimârî Eserleri. Romanya Macaristan I. [Ottoman Architectural Monuments in Europe. Romania Hungary I.] İstanbul: İstanbul Fetih Cemiyeti 1977. 84.; Sudár B. A pécsi Idrisz Baba-türbe. [The Türbe of Idris Baba in Pécs] Budapest: Forster Gyula National Heritage and Asset Management Centre 2013. 39. 70-91.

  • [29.] K uban D. Osmanlı Mimarisi [Ottoman Architecture]. İstanbul: Yem 2007.; Rabb P. ‘We are all servants here!’ Mimar Sinan – architect of the Ottoman Empire” Periodica Polytechnica Architecture 44. 1. (2013) pp. 17-37. doi: https://doi.org/10.3311/PPar.7444.

  • [30.] Gerő Gy. – Sándor M. Pécs-Idrisz Baba türbe (Nyár utca 8.) Ásatás és épületfeltárás 1960. [Pécs Türbe of Idris Baba (8. Nyár Street) Excavation and Building Survey 1960.] Forster Gyula National Heritage and Asset Management Centre Plan Archive. Reg. no.: 05461;

  • [31.] Ferenczy K. Idrisz Baba türbe. Műemlékhelyreállítás műszaki dokumentációja. [Türbe of Idris Baba. The Technical Documentation of the Monument Preservation] (Országos Műemléki Felügyelőség 1961.) Forster Gyula National Heritage and Asset Management Centre Plan Archive. Reg. no.: 09349.

  • [32.] The important aim of the new restoration projects is to avoid all the which damages its constructions to arrange its environment and also to answer some detailed questions which are related to architectural details (e.g. arrangement of interior covering of floor construction of the covering of dome the question of the alem the size of the windows and parapets and the question of entrance).

  • [33.] Hajdú V. – Prakfalvi E. ed. Lapis Angularis II Budapest: OMvH Magyar Építészeti Múzeum [Hungarian Architectural Museum] 1998. 17-19.

  • [34.] Foerk E. Török emlékek Magyarországban. [Turkish Relics in Hungary] In: A Magyar Királyi Állami Felső Építő Ipariskola Szünidei Felvételei 1912-1942. Reprint kiadás. [The Vacation Records Hungarian Royal Public Higher Architectural Industrial School 1912-1942. Reprint Edition.] Budapest TERC 2002. 18-20. Between 1914 and 1915 excavations were carried out for the remains of Gül Baba; at the same time the türbe of Gül Baba was also renovated by István Möller although this internal and external renovation obliterated much of the detail from previous ages.

  • [35.] S udár B. A pécsi Idrisz Baba-türbe. [The Türbe of Idris Baba in Pécs] Budapest: Forster Gyula National Heritage and Asset Management Centre 2013. 61.

  • [36.] MMA MÉM MDK Archives 303/2

  • [37.] S udár B. A pécsi Idrisz Baba-türbe. [The Türbe of Idris Baba in Pécs] Budapest: Forster Gyula National Heritage and Asset Management Centre 2013. 61.

  • [38.] Sudár B. A pécsi Idrisz Baba-türbe. [The Türbe of Idris Baba in Pécs] Budapest: Forster Gyula National Heritage and AssetManagement Centre 2013. 61.

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