Original Article. Matrix Metalloproteinase Mmp-2 and Mmp-9 Activities in Seminal Plasma

Open access


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) areagroup of proteases containing Zn ions asacofactor, which are involved in degrading ofalarge number of extracellular matrix proteins, and bioactive molecules. They also playamajor role in processes such as cell proliferation, cell migration, differentiation and apoptosis. Very little is known about the expression and function of MMPs in the male reproductive tract. Occurrence of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in human seminal plasma has been previously reported but their origin and function are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in normal and abnormal human sperm samples and find if any correlation existed between the levels of expression of MMPs and fertilization potential of the spermatozoa. Human spermsamples were examined for the presence of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by gel zymography and western blot analysis. A DNAfragmentation test was performed. The samples were divided into two groups - samples with normozoospermia and teratozoospermia. The gelatin zymography showed gelatinolytic bands with molecular weight 64 and 72 k Da corresponding to active and inactive form of MMP-2. MMP-9 was not detected. The MMP-2 enzymatic activity appeared to be much higher in samples with compromised sperm morphology as compared to the normozoospermic samples. The mean DNAfragmentation index (DFI) of the group with teratozoospermia was relatively higher (22.16%) and over the upper reference limits, compared to the normozoospermic group, in which it was within the normal range (17.26%).

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Larsen M Artym V Green JA Yamada KM. The matrix reorganized: extracellular matrix remodeling and integrin signaling. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2006;18(5):463-71.

  • 2. Hulboy DL Rudolph LA Matrisian LM. Matrix metalloproteinases as mediators of reproductive function.Mol Hum Reprod.1997;3(1):27-45.

  • 3. Smith MF Ricke W Bakke LJ Dow MPD Smith GW. Ovarian tissue remodeling: role of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. Mol Cel Endocrinol. 2002;191(1):45-56.

  • 4. Baumgart E Lenk SV Loening SA Jung K. Quantitativedi fferencesinmatrixmetalloproteinase (MMP)-2 but not in MMP-9 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 or TIMP-2 in seminal plasma of normozoospermic and azoospermic patients. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(11):2919-23.

  • 5. Buchman-Shaked O Kraiem Z Gonen Y Goldman S . Presenceofmatrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase in human sperm. J Androl. 2002;23(5):702-8.

  • 6. Robinson LL Sznajder N Riley SC Anderson R. Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in human fetal testis and ovary. Mol Hum Reprod. 2001;7(7):641-8.

  • 7. Metayer S Dacheux F Dacheux JL Gatti JL. Comparison characterization and identification of proteases and protease inhibitors in epididymal fluids of domestic mammals. Matrix metalloproteinases are major fluid gelatinases. Biol Reprod. 2002;66(5):1219-29.

  • 8. Longin J Guillaumot P Chauvin M Morera M Le Magueresse-Battistoni B. MT1-MMPin rat testicular development and the control of Sertoli cell pro MMP-2 activation. J Cell Sci. 2000;114(11):2125-34.

  • 9. Qing-Xiang Sang Dym M Bryer SW. Secreted Metalloproteinases in Testicular Cell Culture. Biol Reprod. 1990;43:946-55.

  • 10.World Health Organization. WHOlaboratory manual for the Examination and processing of human semen. 5 ed. Geneva: World Health th Organization; 2010.

  • 11. Lukanov T Lichev D Konova E Emin A Ayvazova N Roussev G R et al. Investigation of Sperm Dna Fragmentation By Sperm Dna Integrity Assay. Jof IMAB. 2008;1:11-4.

  • 12. Lukanov T Lichev D Konova E Emin A Ayvazova N Roussev G R et al. Flow cytometric measurement of sperm nuclear DNAfragmentation in infertile men with normal standard sperm parameters. J Mens Health. 2009;6(1):50-5.

  • 13. Bungum M. Sperm DNAintegrity assessment:anew tool in diagnosis and treatment of fertility. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2012;2012:1-6.

  • 14. Nikolettos N Kupker W Demirel C Schopper B Blasig C Sturm R et al. Fertilization potential of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology. Hum Reprod. 1999;14(1):47-70.

  • 15. Saengsoi W Shia WY Shyu C LWu JTWarinrak C Lee WM et al. Detection of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in canine seminal plasma. Anim Reprod Sci. 2011;127(1-2):114-9.

  • 16. Matrbian LM. Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in matrix remodeling. Trends Genet. 1990;6(4):121-5.

  • 17. Tentes I Asimakopoulos B Mourvati E Diedrich K Al-Hasani S Nikolettos N. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in seminal plasma. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2007;24:278-81.

  • 18. Pipan MZ Kosec M Mrkun J Zrimšek P. Gelatinases in Boar Seminal Plasma and Their Relation to Semen Indicators. Acta Vet Brno. 2010;79(3):491-96.

  • 19. Uhrin P Dewerchin M Hilpert M Chrenek P Schofer C Zechmeister-Machhart Met al. Disruption of the protein Cinhibitor gene results in impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility. J Clin Invest. 2000;106(12):1531-9.

  • 20. Sakkas D Moffatt O Manicardi GC Mariethoz E Tarozzi N Bizzaro D. Nature of DNAdamage in ejaculated human spermatozoa and the possible involvement of apoptosis. Biol Reprod. 2002;66(4):1061-7.

  • 21. Irvine D S Twigg J P Gordon E L Fulton N. Milne P Aitken R J. DNAintegrity in human spermatozoa: relationships with semen quality. J Androl. 2000;21(1):33-44.

  • 22. Lopes S Sun J G Jurisicova A Meriano J Casper RF. Sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation is increased in poor-quality semen samples and correlates with failed fertilization in intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 1998;69(3):528-32.

  • 23. Sun JG Jurisicova A Casper R F. Detection of deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation in human sperm: correlation with fertilization in vitro. Biol Reprod. 1997;56(3):602-7.

  • 24. Sakkas D Mariethoz E St John JC. Abnormal sperm parameters in humans are indicative of an abortive apoptotic mechanism linked to the Fasmediatedpathway. Exp Cell Res. 1999;251(2):350-5.

  • 25. Aziz N Said T Paasch U Agarwal A. The relationship between human sperm apoptosis morphology and the sperm deformity index. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:1413-9.

  • 26. Ricci G Perticarari S Fragonas E Giolo E Canova S Pozzobon C et al. Apoptosis in human sperm: its correlation with semen quality and the presence of leukocytes. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(10):2665-72.

  • 27.Wohlschlaeger J Stubbe H D Schmitz K J Kawaguchi N Takeda A Takeda N et al. Roles of MMP-2/-9 in cardiac dysfunction during early multiple organ failure in an ovine animal model. Pathol Res Pract. 2005;201(12):809-17.

Journal information
Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 267 87 1
PDF Downloads 122 56 4