The pharmacokinetics of zinc was investigated in broiler chickens after single crop intubation of 50 mg/kg 5% zinc aspartate suspension in 2% carboxymethyl cellulose solution. Blood serum zinc concentrations were assayed on a biochemical analyzer. The pharmacokinetics of zinc was evaluated using two approaches – compartmental method and non-compartmental analysis using pharmacokinetic software (TopFit, v. 2.0). After the intraingluvial application, zinc was rapidly absorbed (t1/2abs. =0.1040.02 h) by the alimentary system of birds attaining Cmax of 63.603.94 mol/ml by hour 0.77 (compartmental method) and Cmax =69.274.35 mol/ml by hour 0.92 h (non-compartmental method). It is characterized with a long biological half-life (t1/2) of 13.821.63 h (compartmental analysis) and 15.961.73 h (non-compartmental analysis) and long mean residence times (MRT) 20.122.35 h and 23.002.50 h, respectively. The distribution in blood and extracellular fluid was good as seen from Vd(area) values 0.770.05 l/kg (compartmental analysis) and 0.650.05 l/kg (non-compartmental analysis).
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Sugarman B. Zinc and Infection. Rev Infect Dis.1983;5(1):137-47.
2. Ashmead HD Zunino H. Factors which affect the intestinal absorption of minerals In: Ashmead HD editor. The Roles of Amino Acid Chelates in Animal Nutrition. USA: Park Ridge: Noyes Publications; 1993. p. 21-46.
3. Kaim W Schwederski B Klein A. Bioinorganic Chemistry: Inorganic Elements in the Chemistry of Life: An Introduction and Guide. 2nd ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.; 2013.
4. Panel on Micronutrients Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A Vitamin K Arsenic Boron Chromium Copper Iodine Iron Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Silicon Vanadium and Zinc. Washington D.C.: Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine National Academic Press; 2001.
5. Yasuno T Okamoto H Nagai M Kimura S Yamamoto T Nagano K et al. The disposition and intestinal absorption of zinc in rats. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2011;44:410-15.
6. García-Contreras Y De Loera Y García-Artiga C Palomo A Guevara JA Herrrera-Haro J et al. Elevated dietary intake of Zn-methionate is associated with increased sperm DNA fragmentation in the boar. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31(4):570-3.
7. Yu Y Wang RL Xi L Liu XG. Effects of zinc source and phytate on zinc absorption by in ligated intestinal loops of broilers. Poult Sci. 2010;89(10):2157-65.
8. Star L van der Klis JD Rapp C Ward TL. Bioavailability of organic and inorganic zinc sources in male broilers. Poult Sci. 2012;91(12):3115-20.
9. Schlegel P Sauvant D Jondreville C. Bioavailability of zinc sources and their interaction with phytates in broilers and piglets. Animal. 2013;7(1):47-59.
10. Rajas LX McDowell LR Martin FG Wilkonson NS Johnson AB Njeru CA. Relative biavailability of zinc methionine and two inorganic zinc sources fed to cattle. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1996;10(4):205-9.
11. Walter A Krämer K Most E Pallauf J. Zinc availability from zinc lipoate and zinc sulphate in growing rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2002;16(3):169-74.
12. Wright CL Spears JW Webb JrKE. Uptake of zinc from zinc sulphate and zinc proteinate by ovine ruminal epithelia. J Anim Sci. 2008;86(6):1357-63.
13. Li C H Shen CC Cheng YW Huang SH Kao CC Liao JW Kang JJ. Organ biodistribution clearance and toxicity of orally administered zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice. Nanotoxicology. 2012;6(7):746-56.
14. Pal DT Gowda NK Prasad CS Amarnanth R Bharadwa U Suresh Babu G et al. Effect of copper- and zinc-methionine supplementation on bioavailability mineral status and tissue concentrations of copper and zinc in ewes. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2010;24(2):89-94.
15. Chen J-K Shin M-H Peir J-J Liu CH Chou F-I Lai W-H et al. The use of radioactive zinc oxide nanoparticles in determination of their tissue concentrations following intravenous administration in mice. Analyst. 2010;135(7):1742-46.
16. Shyn A Chalk SJ Smith K Charnock NL Bielmyer GK. Zinc distribution in the organs of adult Fundulus heteroclitus after waterborne zinc exposure in freshwater and saltwater. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;63(4):544-53.
17. Heinzel G Woloszak R Thomann P. Topfit v.2.0. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Data Analysis System for PC. Stuttgart Jena New York: Gustav Fisher; 1993.
18. Baggot DJ. The Physiological Basis of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology. Oxford (UK): Blackwell Science Ltd; 2001.
19. Gibaldi M Perrier D. Pharmacokinetics Revised and Expanded. 2nd ed. Swarbrick J editor. New York: Informa Healthcare Inc; 2007.
20. Yamaoka K Nakagawa T Uno T. Application of Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) in the evaluation of linear pharmacokinetic equations. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1978;6:166-75.
21. Ivanova S Dimitrova D Petrichev M Parvanova L Kalistratov G Vezenkov L. Pharmacokinetics of some inorganic ad organic zinc compounds in broiler chickens. Agric Sci Technol. 2014;6(3):267-70.
22. Andermann G Dietz M. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of three zinc salts: zinc pantothenate zinc sulphate and zinc orotate. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1982;7(3):233-9.
23. Guillard O Courtois P Murai P Ducassou D Reiss D. Comparative pharmacokinetics of [65Zn] zinc sulphate and [65Zn] zinc pantothenate injected intravenously in rabbits. J Pharm Sci. 1984;73(11):1642-8.
24. Barron MG Schltz IR Newman MC. Pharmacokinetics of Intravascularly Administered 65Zinc in Cannel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2000;45:304-9.
25. Nève J Hanq M Peretz A Abi Khalil F Pelen E Famaey JP et al. Pharmacokinetic study of orally administered zinc in humans: Evidence for an enteral recirculation. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1991;16(4):315-23.
26. Van der Broek AH. A standardized oral zinc tolerance test for assessment of zinc absorption in dogs. Vet Res Commun. 1993;17(1):3-11.