Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is one of the most common types of leukemia in adults. It belongs to the group of indolent lymphoproliferative disorders and has a slow clinical course. Approximately 50% of newly diagnosed patients do not require treatment for years. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease has led to the development of models for assessment of the risk.
Our study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the serum marker beta-2 microglobulin (82M) and the flow cytometric marker CD49d in patients with early-stage of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) as well as look for a correlation between CD 49d and the early stages of the disease. For this purpose, analysis of 30 untreated patients with known and newly diagnosed B-CLL was carried out. The following methods were used: documentary, flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood, Rai staging system and chi-square test of independence (Fisher’s Exact Test). The results from our study showed that a small number of patients in the early stage of the disease have high levels of CD49d expression and beta-2 microglobulins. In eight of 29 patients, the flow cytometric marker was higher than 30%, and in ten out of 29 patients, the B2M was above the reference range. No significant correlation between the two markers in early stage B-CLL patients was found.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Martinelli S CuneoA Formigaro L Cavallari M Lista E Quaglia MF et al. Identifying high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a pathogenesis- oriented appraisal of prognostic and predictive factors in patients treated with chemotherapy with or without immunotherapy. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2016;8(1):e2016047.
2. Montserat E. New prognostic markers in CLL. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2006;279-84.
3. Bernier GM. beta 2-Microglobulin: structure function and significance. Vox Sang.1980;38(6):323-7.
4. Berrebi A Shvidel L Arditti D F Bassous L Haran M Shtalrid M. The Significance of elevated beta 2-Microglobulin (b2-m) in B-CLL: evidence of in vitro b2-m secretion following activation of B-CLL cells. Blood. 2009; 114:4380.
5. Argyropoulos CP Chen SS Ng Y-H Roumelioti ME Kamran S Singh PP et al. Rediscovering beta-2 Microglobulin as a biomarker across the spectrum of kidney diseases. Front Med (Lausanne). 2017;4:73.
6. Bethea M Forman D. Beta -microglobulin: its significance and clinical usefulness. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1990;20(3):163-8.
7. Andreucci M Faga T Riccio E Sabbatini M Pisani A Michael A. The potential use of biomarkers in predicting contrast-induced acute kidney injury.Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis. 2016; 9:205-21.
8. Zeng X Hossain D Bostwick DG Herrera GA Ballester B Zhang PL. Urinary β2- microglobulin is a sensitive indicator for renal tubular injury. Scholarena Journal (SAJ) of Case Reports. 2014;1(1):1-6:
9. Jimenez-Zepeda VH Duggan P Neri P Rashid- Kolvear F Tay J Bahlis NJ. Revised International Staging System applied to real world multiple myeloma patients. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2016;16(9):511–8.
10. Press OW Unger JM Rimsza LM Friedberg JW LeBlanc M Czuczman MS et al. A comparative analysis of prognostic factor models for follicular lymphoma based on a phase III trial of CHOP-Rituximab vs CHOP + 131Iodine-Tositumomab. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Dec; 19(23).
11. Dal Bo M Tissino E Benedetti D Caldana C Bomben R Poeta GD et al. Functional and clinical significance of the lntegrin Alpha Chain CD49d expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2016;16(8):659-68.
12. Zucchetto A Vaisitti T Benedetti D Tissino E Bertagnolo V Rossi D et al. The CD49d/CD29 complex is physically and functionally associated with CD38 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Leukemia. 2012;26(6):1301-12.
13. Bulian P Shanafelt TD Fegan C Zucchetto A Cro L Nückel H et al. CD49d is the strongest flow cytometry-based predictor of overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J. Clin. Oncol. 2014;32(9):897-904.
14. Gentile M Cutrona G Neri A Molica S Ferrarini M Morabito F. Predictive value of β2-microglobulin (β2-m) levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia since Binet A stages. Haematolica. 2009; 94(6):887-8.
15. Sarris K Maltezas D Koulieris E Bartzis V Tzenou T Sachanas S et al. Prognostic significance of serum free light chains in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clin Adv Hematol. Oncol. 2013 Oct 29;ID 359071.
16. Baumann T Delgado J Santacruz R Martínez-Trillos A Rozman M Aymerich M et al. CD49d (lTGA4) expression is a predictor of time to first treatment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mutated IGHV status. Br J Haematol. 2016;172(1):48-55.