Characteristics of Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Carnica, Pollman 1879) Queens Reared in Slovenian Commercial Breeding Stations

Open access

Abstract

In this three-year-trial study, we examined the quality of mated queens based on morphological and physiology traits. At each location, sister queen bees were reared each year from one Apis mellifera carnica breeder queen. Queens were also reared and mated in different locations. Altogether, we sampled and analysed 324 queens from 27 apiaries in 2006, 288 queens from 24 apiaries in 2008, and 276 queens from 23 apiaries in 2010. Nine queens from each apiary were sampled and dissected for morphological analyses and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae) spores, if present, were quantified. Three queens from each apiary were prepared and tested for four viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), deformed wing virus (DWV), and sacbrood virus (SBV). The highest average queen weight of 209.49 ± 9.82 mg was detected in 2008. The highest average ovary weight of 78.67 ± 11.86 mg was detected in 2010, and the highest number of ovarioles was 161.59 ± 8.70 in 2006. The average number of spermatozoa in queens ranged from 3.30 x 106 in 2006 to 5.23 x 106 in 2010. Nosema ceranae spores were found in queens sampled in 2008 and 2010. Viruses were discovered sporadically during the queen testing periods from 2006 - 2010. This study importantly demonstrates that queens from rearing stations require regular evaluation for morphological and physiological changes as well as for infection from harmful pathogens. These results could also be used in establishing relevant commercial standards for rearing quality queens.

Berényi O., Bakonyi T., Derakhshifar I., Köglberger H., Nowotny N. (2006) Occurrence of Six Honeybee Viruses in Diseased Austrian Apiaries. Applied Environmental Microbiology 72(4): 2414-2420.

Botías C., Martín-Hernández R., Barrios L., Meana A., Higes M. (2013) Nosema spp. infection and its negative effects on honey bees (Apis mellifera iberiensis) at the colony level. Veterinary Research 44: 25. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-44-25

Büchler R., Andonov S., Bienefeld K., Costa C., Hatjina F., Kezic N., Kryger P., Spivak M., Uzunov A., Wilde J. (2013) Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): 1-29. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.1.52.1.07

Camazine S., Çakmak I., Cramp K., Finley J., Fisher J., Frazier M., Rozo A. (1998) How healthy are commerciallyproduced US honey bee queens? American Bee Journal 138: 677-680.

Cantwell G. E. (1970) Standard methods for counting nosema spores. American Bee Journal 110: 222-223.

Carreck N. L., Andree M., Brent C. S., Cox-Foster D., Dade H. A., Ellis J. D. Hatjina F., VanEngelsdorp D. (2013) Standard methods for Apis mellifera anatomy and dissection. In: Dietemann V., Ellis J. D., Neumann P. (Eds.) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4): 1-40. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.03

Chen Y. P., Higgins J. A., Feldlaufer M. F. (2005) Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of deformed wing virus infection in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71: 436-441.

Czekońska K. (2000) The influence of Nosema apis on young honey bee queens and transmission of the disease from queens to workers. Apidologie 31(6): 701-706. DOI: 10.1051/apido:2000154

De Graaf D. C., Maschelein G., Vandergeynst F., De Brabander H. F., Jacobs F. J. (1993) In vitro germination of Nosema apis (Microspora: Nosematidae) spores and its effect on their αα-trehalose/D-glucose ratio. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 62(3): 220-225. DOI: 10.1006/ jipa.1993.1103

Eid M. A. A., Ewies M. A., Nasr M. S. (1980) The weight of the newly emerged honeybee queens as an index of its potential productivity. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo 29: 91-111.

Gauthier L., Ravallec M., Tournaire M., Cousserans F., Bergoin M., Dainat B., de Miranda J. R. (2011) Viruses associated with ovarian degeneration in Apis mellifera L. queens. PLoS ONE 6(1): e16217. DOI: 10.1371/journal. pone.0016217

Gregorc A., Bakony T. (2012) Viral infections in queen bees (Apis mellifera carnica) from rearing apiaries. Acta veterinaria Brno 81: 15-19. DOI: 10.2754/ avb201281010015

Gregorc A., Bowen I. D. (1999) In situ localization of heatshock and histone proteins in honey-bee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae infected with paenibacillus larvae. Cell biology international 23: 211-218.

Gregorc A., Fijan N., Poklukar J. (1992) The effect of Apis mellifera carnica Polm worker bee source for populating mating nuclei on degree of infection by Nosema apis Zander. Apidologie 23(3): 241-244. DOI: 10.1051/ apido:19920307

Gregorc A., Poklukar J., Perko M., Babnik D. (1991) Incidence of nosema disease in queen-rearing (Apis mellifera Pollm.) apiaries in Slovenia. Zbornik Veterinarske fakultete, Univerze v Ljubljani 28(1): 19-24.

Güler A., Alpay H. (2005) Reproductive characteristics of some honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) genotypes. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4(10): 864-870. Available at: http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljournals/javaa/2005/864-870.pdf

Harbo J. R. (1986) Oviposition rates of instrumentally inseminated and naturally mated queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79(1): 112-115.

Hassanein M. H. (1951) Studies on the Effect of Infection with Nosema apis on the Physiology of the Queen Honey-bee. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 92: 225-231. Available at: http://jcs.biologists.org/content/s3-92/18/225.full.pdf+html

Hatjina F., Bieńkowska M., Charistos L., Chlebo R., Costa C., Dražić M. M., Filipi J., Gregorc A., Ivanova E. N., Kezic N., Kopernicky J., Kryger P., Lodesani M., Lokar V., Mladenovic M., Panasiuk B., Petrov P. P., Rašić S., Smodis Skerl M. I., Vejsnæs F., Wilde J. (2014) A review of methods used in some European countries for assessing the quality of honey bee queens through their physical characters and the performance of their colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research 53(3): 337-363.

Higes M., Martín R., Meana A. (2006) Nosema ceranae, a new microsporidian parasite in honeybees in Europe. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 92(2): 93-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2006.02.005

Koç A. U., Karacaoglu M. (2011) Effects of queen rearing period on reproductive features of Italian (Apis mellifera ligustica), Caucasian (Apis mellifera caucasica), and Aegean ecotype of Anatolian honey bee (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) queens. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 35(4): 271-276. Available at: http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/veterinary/issues/vet-11-35-4/vet-35-4-8-1007-375.pdf

Koeniger G., Koeniger N., Tingek S., Phiancharoen M. (2005) Variance in spermatozoa number among Apis dorsata drones and among Apis mellifera drones. Apidologie 36(2): 279-284. DOI: 10.1051/apido: 2005009

Mahbobi A., Farshineh-Adi M., Woyke J., Abbasi S. (2012) Effects of the age of grafted larvae and the effects of supplemental feeding on some morphological characteristics of Iranian queen honey bees (Apis mellifera meda, Skorikov 1929). Journal of Apicultural Research 56(1): 93-98. DOI: 10.2478/v10289-012-0010-1

Meyer W. (1975) Jungkönigin, EWK und Insebegstelle. Allgemeine Deutsches Imkerzeitung 9: 151-152.

OIE Terrestrial Manual 2008. Available at: http://www.oie.int/fr/normes/mmanual/2008/pdf/2.02.04_NOSEMOSIS.pdf

Reiss M. J. (1989) The Allometry of Growth and Reproduction. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 4 pp. Available at: https://ebooks.cambridge.org/pdf_viewer.jsf?cid=CBO9780511608483A004&ref=false&pubCode=CUP&urlPrefix=cambridge&productCode=cbo

Rhodes J. W., Somerville D. C. (2003) Introduction and early performance of queen bees - some factors affecting success. A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Kingston. 44 pp.

Rhodes J. W., Somerville D. C., Harden S. (2004) Queen honey bee introduction and early survival - effects of queen age at introduction. Apidologie 35(4): 383-388. DOI: 10.1051/apido:2004028

Roy M. F., Kryger P. (2012) Single assay detection of acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus. Journal of Apicultural Science 56: 137-146.

Ruttner F. (1983) Queen rearing. Apimondia Publishing House. Bucharest. 358 pp.

Skowronek W., Bieńkowska M., Kruk C. (2004) Changes in body weight of honeybee queens during their maturation. Journal of Apicultural Science 48(2): 61-68. Available at: http://www.jas.org.pl/jas_48_2_2004_7.pdf

Statgraphic plus (1996) Statistical graphic system. STSC Inc. Rockville.

Szabo T. I. (1973) Relationship between weight of honey-bee queens (Apis mellifera L.) at emergence and at the cassation of egg laying. American Bee Journal 113(7): 250-251.

Tarpy D. R., Keller J. J., Caren J. R., Delaney D. A. (2012) Assessing the Mating ‚Health‘ of Commercial Honey Bee Queens. Journal of Economic Entomology 105(1): 20-25.

Weiss K. (1974) The weight of honeybee queens seen in dependence of the larva’s grafting age and its food supply. Apidologie 5: 127-147.

Woyke J. (1962) Natural and artificial insemination of queen honeybees. Bee World 43: 21-25. Available at: http://jerzy_woyke.users.sggw.pl/1962_nat_artins.pdf

Woyke J. (1971) Correlations between the age at which honey bee brood was grafted, characteristics of the resultant queens, and results of insemination. Journal of Apicultural Research 10: 45-55.

Zhdanova T. S. (1967) Influence of nest temperature on quality of queens produced artificially. In: The XXIst International Apicultural Congress Apimondia. University of Maryland - USA. 14-17 August 1967: 245-249.

Journal of Apicultural Science

The Journal of Research Institute of Horticulture and Apicultural Research Association

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.75
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.007

CiteScore 2017: 0.92

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.345
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.461

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 250 250 34
PDF Downloads 92 92 18