Evaluation of Bee Diversity within Different Sweet Cherry Orchards in the Sultandaği Reservoir (Turkey)

Open access


Many varieties of sweet cherry are self-incompatible. Therefore, sweet cherry orchards require a huge population of pollinator bees to carry out an adequate amount of pollen transfer between the different varieties. Our study was conducted to evaluate the differences in the richness and diversity of these pollinators within very closely located sweet cherry orchards, and to understand the underlying effects causing these differences. The study was conducted in the Sultandağı Reservoir (Turkey) which covers the towns of Sultandağı (Afyonkarahisar) and Akşehir (Konya). In order to avoid a sampling bias, Malaise traps were used to collect bee samples. Sampling collections were repeated for three years; from 2007 to 2009, between April and May. The traps were set in the bud-swell period and lifted in the green-fruit period. Climatic data were taken from meteorology stations near the orchards. Vegetation in the surrounding areas was also inspected. The composition of pollinator bee species was determined and compared between orchards. In total, 83 bee species and 38 plant species were recorded. It was found that Halictidae is the most abundant and richest group among the pollinator bees. The effects of the quantity of the Malaise traps on bee sampling success were also tested. It was found that one trap per 325 trees is enough for an adequate sampling. Apart from the annual fluctuations of bee richness in the orchards, general differences in the bee diversity among orchards might be affected by the surrounding vegetation and especially from different agricultural practices such as tilling the ground.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Al-Ghzawi A. Zaitoun S. Mazary S. Schindler M. Wittmann D. (2006) Diversity of bees (Hymenoptera Apiformes) in extensive orchards in the highlands of Jordan. Arxius de Miscellània Zoològica 4: 42-48.

  • Amiet F. Herrmann M. Müller A. Neumeyer R. (2001) Fauna Helvetica: Apidae 3. Halictus Lasioglossum. Centre Suisse de Cartographie de la Faune (CSCF)/Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft (SEG). Neuchatel. 208 pp.

  • Amiet F. Herrmann M. Müller A. Neumeyer R. (2004) Fauna Helvetica 9 Apidae 4 (Anthidium Chelostoma Coelioxys Dioxys Heriades Lithurgus Megachile Osmia Stelis). Centre Suisse de Cartographie de la Faune (CSCF)/ Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft (SEG). Neuchatel. 273 pp.

  • Banaszak J. Romasenko L. (1998) Megachilid bees of Europe. Pedagogical University of Bydgoszcz. Bydgoszcz Poland. 239 pp.

  • Bosch J. Kemp W. P. (1999) Exceptional cherry production in an orchard pollinated with blue orchard bees. Bee World 80(4): 163-173.

  • Bosch J. Kemp W. P. Peterson S. S. (2000) Management of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) populations for almond pollination: methods to advance bee emergence. Environmental Entomology 25(5): 874-883.

  • Delaplane K. S. Mayer D. F (2000) Crop pollination by bees. CABI Publishing Cambridge. M.A. USA. 352 pp.

  • Dikmen F. (2012) Akdeniz Bölgesi Halictidae (Apiformes: Apoidea: Hymenoptera) familyası üzerinde sistematik çalışmalar. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü. 2012-D-6085 nolu Doktora tezi. 22.06.2012. 343 pp.

  • Ebmer A. W. (1969) Die bienen des genus Halictus Latr. s. l. im grossraum von Linz (Hymenoptera Apidae): systematik biogeographie ökologie und biologie mit berücksichtigung aller bisher aus Mitteleuropa bekannten Arten teil I. Naturkundlichen Station der Stadt Linz 15: 133-183..

  • Fraser S. E. M. Dytman C. Mayhew P. J. (2008) The effectiveness and optimal use of malaise trap for monitoring parasitoid wasps. Insect Conservation and Diversity 1: 22-31.

  • Goulson D. (2003) Conserving wild bees for crop pollination. International Journal of Food Agriulture and the Environment 1: 142-144.

  • Güler Y. (2011) The wild bee fauna of Afyonkarahisar province: Andrenidae Anthophoridae and Megachilidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Linzer Biologische Beiträge 43(1): 731-746.

  • Güler Y. (2012) Sultandağı (Afyonkarahisar) kiraz bahçelerinde Osmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) türlerine yönelik yürütülen yapay yuva çalışmaları. Bitki Koruma Bülteni 52(4): 325- 336.

  • Güler Y. Dikmen F. (2013) Potential bee pollinators of sweet cherry in inclement weather conditions. Journal of the Entomology Research Society 15(3): 9-19.

  • Güler Y. Sorkun K. (2010) Analysis of pollen collected by Andrena flavipes Panzer (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) in sweet cherry orchards Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey. Psyche 2010: 1-5. DOI: 10.1155/2010/160789

  • Güler Y. Aytekin A. M. Dikmen F. (2011) Bombini and Halictidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) fauna of Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey. Journal of the Entomological Research Society 13(1): 1-22.

  • Hijmans R. J. Guarino L. Bussink C. Mathur P. Cruz M. Barrantes I. Rojas E. (2005) DIVA-GIS version 5.2. A geographic information system for the analysis of biodiversity data. Manual. Available at: http://www.diva-gis.org

  • Holzschuh A. Steffan-Dewenter I. Kleijn D. Tscharntke T. (2007) Diversity of flower-visiting bees in cereal fields: effects of farming system landscape composition and regional context. Journal of Applied Ecology 44: 41-49.

  • Huang Z. (2003) The other bees: alternative pollinators for tree and small fruits. Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert Michigan State University 18(6): 9-10.

  • Irvine K. M. Woods S. A. (2007) Evaluating shading bias in Malaise and window-pane traps. Journal of the Acadian Entomological Society 3: 38-48.

  • McAleece N. Gage J. D. G. Lambshead P. J. D. Paterson G. L. J. (1997) BioDiversity. Professional statistics analysis software. Scottish Association for Marine Science.

  • Michener C. D. (2000) The Bees of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore USA. 913 pp.

  • Oertli S. Müller A. Dorn S. (2005) Ecological and seasonal pattern in the diversity of a species-rich bee assemblage (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes). European Journal of Entomology 102: 53-63.

  • Osychnyuk A. Z. Panfilov D. V. Ponomareva A. A. (1978) Nadsem. Apoidea - Pchelinye. In: Medvedev G. S. (Ed.) Opredelitel` nasekomyh Evropejskoj chasti SSSR 3. Pereponchatokrylye pt. 1. Akademija Nauk SSSR. Leningrad: 279-519.

  • Özbek H. (2008) Türkiye’de iliman iklim meyve türlerini ziyaret eden böcek türleri. Uludağ Arıcılık Dergisi 8(3): 92-103.

  • Özbek H. Zanden G. van der (1996) A preliminary review of the Megachilidae of Turkey part V supplement to parts I-IV (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 20(1): 3-17.

  • Pesenko Yu. A. (1978) Tablica dla opedelenya semeystv nadsem. Apoidea. In: Medvedev G. S. (Ed.) Opredelitel nasekomihewropeyskoy chasti SSSR. Tom 3. Pereponchatokrilye. Chast 1. Nauka Leningradskoe Otdelenie. Leningrad: 280-281.

  • Pesenko Yu. A. (1984) A subgeneric classification of bees of the genus Halictus Latreille sensu stricto (Hymenoptera Halictidae). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 63(3): 340-357 [in Russian with English summary. English translation: Entomological Review 1985 63(3): 1-20)].

  • Pesenko Yu. A. (1985) Systematics of the bees of the genus Halictus Latreille (Hymenoptera Halictidae) with a description of 7th and 8th metasomal sterna of males: subgenus Monilapis Cockerell. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademiia Nauk SSSR 132: 77-105.

  • Pesenko Yu. A. (1986) An annotated key to the Palaearctic species of bees of the genus Lasioglossum sensu stricto (Hymenoptera Halictidae) for females with descriptions of new subgenera and species. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademiia Nauk SSSR 159: 113-151.

  • Pesenko Yu. A. Banaszak J. Radchenko V.G. Cierzniak T. (2000) Bees of the family Halictidae (excluding Sphecodes) of Poland: taxonomy ecology bionomics. Bydgoszcz Press. Bydgoszcz Poland. 348 pp.

  • Rossi J. Gamba U. Pinna M. Spagnolo S. Visentin C. Alma A. (2006) Hoverflies in organic apple orchards in North- Western Italy. Bulletin of Insectology 59(2): 111-114.

  • Roversi A. Ughini V. (1996) Influence of weather conditions of the flowering period on sweet cherry fruit set. In: Proceedings of the International Cherry Symposium. Budapest - Hungary. 14-18 June 1993. Acta-Horticulturae 410: 427-433.

  • Scheuchl E. (2000) Illustrierte bestimmungstabellen der wildbienen Deutschlands und Österreichs. Band 1: Anthophoridae. 2nd revised edition. Preisinger KG. Landshut. 158 pp.

  • Scheuchl E. (2006) Illustrierte bestimmungstabellen der wildbienen Deutschlands und Österreichs. Band 2: Megachilidae und Melittidae. Preisinger KG. Landshut. 192 pp.

  • Sharley D. J. Hoffmann A. A. Thomson L. J. (2008) The effects of soil tillage on beneficial invertebrates within the vineyard. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 10: 233-243.

  • Steffan-Dewenter I. Leschke K. (2003) Effects of habitat management on vegetation and above-ground nesting bees and wasps of orchard meadows in Central Europe. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 1953-1968.

  • Tadauchi O. Matsumura T. (2007) The genus Andrena collected from Nepal (Hymenoptera Andrenidae) with redescriptions of some types of Andrena described from North India. Esakia 47: 1-20.

  • Terzo M. Iserbyt S. Rasmont P. (2007) Revision des Xylocopinae (Hymenoptera: Apidae) de France et de Belgique. Annales De La Societe Entomologique De France 43(4): 445-492.

  • Townes H. (1972) A light-weight malaise trap. Entomogical News 83: 239- 247.

  • Tscheulin T. Neokosmidis L. Petanidou T. Settele J. (2011) Influence of landscape context on the abundance and diversity of bees in Mediterranean olive groves. Bulletin of Entomological Research 101: 557-564.

  • Tuell J. K. Ascher J. S. Isaacs R. (2009) Wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) of the Michigan highbush blueberry agroecosystem. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 102: 275-287.

  • Vicens N. Bosch J. (2000) Pollinating efficacy of Osmia cornuta and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae Apidae) on ‚red delicious‘ apple. Environmental Entomology 29(2): 235-240.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.804
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.007

CiteScore 2018: 0.98

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.362
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.645

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 289 85 11
PDF Downloads 152 78 15