The Amitraz Strips Efficacy in Control of Varroa Destructor After Many Years Application of Amitraz in Apiaries

Open access


Amitraz is a varroacide used the longest (over thirty years) and most commonly by Polish beekeepers. This involves high risk of V. destructor developing amitraz resistance. Therefore it is necessary to monitor the effectiveness of treatments to ensure appropriate protection of the honeybee colonies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of amitraz used as the contact varroacide (Biowar 500 formulation) to control V. destructor in honeybee colonies. Field studies were conducted in 2011 and 2012. In both years, the amitraz treatments started in the last weeks of August. Two strips of Biowar 500 (500 mg of amitraz per strip) were inserted into each colony and removed after 8 weeks. The control colonies were left untreated for 8 weeks. After removing the strips the control therapy was conducted in all colonies. The average efficacy of amitraz (E%) calculated for the two years combined, after 6 and 8 weeks of treatment, amounted to 90.6% and 94.6%, respectively. As a result of the natural mortality in the control colonies, the population of parasites lowered only by 16.4% and 23.9% during 6 and 8 weeks. The efficacy of the strips was lower in colonies with larger amount of brood.

Abbott W. S. (1925) - A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol.,18:265-267.

Anderson D. L., Trueman J. W. H (2000) - Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) is more than one species. Exp. and Appl. Acarol., 24:165-189. DOI:10.1023/A:1006456720416.

BN-81/9148-01 (1982) - Norma Branżowa - Rodzina pszczela. [Polish Industry Standard - Honeybee colony] - Dziennik Normalizacji i Miar Nr 19/1981, poz. 77. Wydawnictwo Normalizacyjne Warszawa, p. 6.

Boecking O., Genersch E. (2008) - Varroosis - the ongoing crisis in beekeeping. J. Verbrauch. Lebensm., 3: 221-228. DOI: 10.1007/s00003-008-0331-y.

Bogdanov S., Kilchenmann V. (1995) - Acaricide residues in beeswax: long-term studies in Switzerland. Apidologie, 26(4): 319-321.

Bogdanov S., Kilchenmann V., Imdorf A (1998) - Acaricide residues in some bee products. J. Apic. Res., 37(2): 57-67.

Brodschneider R., Moosbeckofer R., Crailsheim K. (2010) - Surveys as a tool to record winter losses of honey bee colonies: a two year case study in Austria and South Tyrol. J. Apic. Res., 49: 23-30. DOI:10.3896/ IBRA.

Chauzat M. P., Carpentier P., Madec F., Bougeard S., Cougoule N., Drajunel P., Clement M. C., Aubert M., Faucon J. P. (2010) - The role of infectious agents and parasites in the health of honey bee colonies in France. J. Apic. Res., 49:31-39. DOI:10.3896/IBRA.

Chuda-Mickiewicz B., Prabucki J., Samborski J., Rostecki P. (2007) - Evaluation of varroacidal efficacy of Biowar preparation. J. Apic. Sci., 51(2): 47-53.

Chuda-Mickiewicz B., Prabucki J., Samborski J., Rostecki P. (2008) - Skuteczność zwalczania Varroa destructor paskami z amitrazą w rodzinach z czerwiem. [The effectiveness of amitraz strips in control of Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies with brood]. In Materiały z XLV NaukowejKonferencji Pszczelarskiej, Puławy, Poland,11-12 marca, 2008, pp. 77-79.

Commission of the European Communities (2002) - Concerted Action 3686: "Coordination in Europe of research on integrated control of Varroa mites in honey bee colonies". Technical guidelines for the evaluation of treatments for control of Varroa mites in honey bee colonies. Recommendations from the CA3686. Document prepared during discussions within the CA3686 working group: "Evaluation of treatment for control of Varroa mites in honey bee colonies".

Commission Regulation (EU) No 37/2010 of 22 December 2009 on pharmacologically active substances and their classification regarding maximum residue limits in foodstuffs of animal origin. Dz. U. L15 z 20.1.2010.

Dahle B. (2010) - The role of Varroadestructor for honey bee colony losses in Norway. J. Apic. Res., 49: 124-125. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.

Delaplane K. S. (2011) - Integrated pest management in Varroa, in Carreck N. L.(Ed.) Varroa - still a problem in the21st Century? International Bee Research Association, Cardiff, pp. 43-51.

Dujin T., Jovanovic V., Suvakov D., Milkovic Z. (1991) - Effect of using amitraz preparations for several years on the development of resistant strains of Varroajacobsoni. Veterinarski Glasnik, 45(11-12): 851-855.

Elzen P. J., Baxter J. R., Spivak M., Wilson W. T. (1999) - Amitraz resistance in Varroa: new discovery in North America. Am. Bee J., 139(5): 362.

Elzen P. J., Baxter, J. R., Spivak M., Wilson W. T. (2000) - Control of Varroajacobsoni Oud. resistant to fluvalinate and amitraz using coumaphos. Apidologie, 31: 437-441.

Evans P. D., Gee J. D. (1980) - Action of formamidine pesticides on octopamine receptors. Nature, 28: 60-62.

Genersch E. (2010) - Honey bee pathology: current threats to honey bees and beekeeping. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 87: 87-97.

Genersch E., von der Ohe W., Kaatz H-H., Schroeder A., Otten C., Büchler R., Berg S., Ritter W., Mühlen W., Gisder S., Meixner M., Liebig G., Rosenkranz P. (2010) - The German bee monitoring project: a long term study to understand periodically high winter losses of honey bee colonies. Apidologie, 41: 332-352.

Guzmán-Novoa E., Eccles L., Calvete Y., Mcgowan J., Kelly P. G, Correa-Benìtez A. (2010) - Varroadestructor is the main culprit for the death and reduced populations of overwintered honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in Ontario, Canada. Apidologie, 41: 443-450. DOI: 10.1051/apido/2009076.

Federal Register/Vol. 78, No. 54/Wednesday, March 20, 2013/Rules and Regulations

Floris I., Sattaa A., Garaub V. L., Melisb M., Cabrasb P., Aloulc N. (2001) - Effectiveness, persistence, and residue of amitraz plastic strips in the apiary control of Varroa destructor. Apidologie, 32: 577-585.

Faucon J. P., Drajnudel P., Chauzat M. P., Aubert M. (2007) - Contrôle de l’efficacité du médicament APIVAR ND contre Varroa destructor, parasite de l’abeille domestique. Revue Méd. Vét., 158(6): 283-290.

Jimenez J., Bernal J., de Nozal M., Toribio L. (1997) - Characterisation and monitoring of amitraz degradation products in honey. J. High Resolut. Chrom., 18: 81-84.

Johnson R. M., Ellis M. D., Mullin C. A., Frazier M. (2010) - Pesticides and honey bee toxicity - U.S.A. Apidologie, 41(3): 312-331.

Johnson R. M., Dahlgren L., Siegfried B. D., Ellis M. D. (2013) - Acaricide, Fungicide and Drug Interactions in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera). PLoS ONE, 8(1): e54092. doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0054092.

Korta E., Bakkali A., Berrueta L. A., Gallo B., Vicente F., Kilchenmann V., Bogdanov S. (2001) - Study of acaricide stability in honey. Characterization of amitraz degradation products in honey and beeswax. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49: 5835-5842.

Le Conte Y., Ellis M. D., Ritter W. (2010) - Varroa mites and honey bee health: can Varroa explain part of the colony losses? Apidologie, 41: 353-363. DOI: 10.1051/ apido/2010017.

Lodesani M., Pellacani A., Bergomi S., Carpana E., Rabitti T., Lasagni P. (1992) - Residue determination for some products used against Varroa infestation in bees. Apidologie, 23(3): 257-272.

Lodesani M., Colombo M., Spreafico M. (1995) - Ineffectiveness of Apistan treatment against the mite Varroajacobsoni Oud in several districts of Lombardy (Italy). Apidologie, 26(1): 67-72.

Londzin W., Pohorecka K., Chuda- Mickiewicz B. (2007) - Skuteczność Biowaru i wybranych leków warroabójczych na podstawie badań terenowych przeprowadzonych w 2006 roku. [Field studies on the effectiveness of Biowar and other varroacidal formulations in 2006]. In Materiałyz XLIV Naukowej Konferencji Pszczelarskiej,Puławy, Poland, 24-25 kwietnia, 2007, pp. 72-74.

Maggi M. D., Ruffinengo S. R., Negri P., Eguaras M. J. (2010) - Resistance phenomena to amitraz from populations of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor of Argentina. Parasitol. Res., 107(5): 1189-92. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-010-1986-8.

Martel A. C., Zeggane S., Aurières C., Drajnudel P., Faucon J. P., Aubert M. (2007) - Acaricide residues in honey and wax after treatment of honey bee colonies with Apivar or Asuntol 50. Apidologie, 38: 534-544.

Mathieu L., Faucon J. P. (2000) - Changes in the response time for Varroa jacobsoni; exposed to amitraz. J. Apic. Res.; 39(3-4): 155-158.

Martin S. J., Highfield A. C., Brettell L., Villalobos E. M., Budge G. C., Powell M., Nikaido S., Schroeder D. C. (2012) - Global honey bee viral landscape altered by a parasitic mite. Science, 336: 1304-1306.

Merrington O. (1990) - Bibliography on the use of amitraz for Varroa control in bees (Apis spp.) (1979-1989). Cambridge Animal and Public Health Ltd., Cambridge, p 36.

Milani N. (1999) - The resistance of Varroajacobsoni Oud. to acaricides. Apidologie, 30(2-3): 229-234.

Mullin C. A., Frazier M., Frazier J. L., Ashcraft S., Simonds R. (2010) - High levels of miticides and agrochemicals in North American apiaries: implications for honey bee health. PLoS ONE, 5(3): e9754. DOI:10.1371.

Nazzi F., Brown S.P., Annoscia D., Del Piccolo F., Di Prisco G., Varricchio P., Della Vedova G., Cattonaro F., Caprio E., Pennacchio F. (2012) - Synergistic Parasite-Pathogen Interactions Mediated by Host Immunity Can Drive the Collapse of Honeybee Colonies. PLoS Path., 8(6): e1002735. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002735.

Pires S., Pereira Ó., Murilhas A. (2007) - Field and laboratory testing for amitraz-tolerant varroa populations. How comparable are their results? In Proceedingsof 40th Apimondia International ApiculturalCongress. Melbourne, [online]

Pires S., Murilhas A., Pereira O., Maia M. (2005) - Current effectiveness of amitraz against Varroa in Portugal. In Proceedings of 39th Apimondia InternationalApicultural Congress, Dublin, Irlandia, 2005: 78.

Pohorecka K., Bober A. (2008) - Porównanie wrażliwości na amitraz populacji Varroadestructor pochodzących z pasiek leczonych amitrazem i fluwalinatem. [Amitraz sensitivity of Varroa destructor populations from apiaries treated with amitraz and fluwalinat]. In Materiały z XLV Naukowej KonferencjiPszczelarskiej, Puławy, Poland, 11-12 marca,2008, pp. 83-85.

Pohorecka K., Bober A., Skubida M., Zdańska D. (2011) - Epizootic status of apiaries with massive losses of bee colonies (2008-2009). J. Apic. Sci., 55(1): 137-150.

Pohorecka K., Bieńkowska M., Gerula D., Semkiw P., Skubida P. (2006) - Effect of biological factors on anti-varroa efficacy of Biowar formula. In Materiały z XLIII Naukowej KonferencjiPszczelarskiej, Puławy, 25-27 kwietnia, 2006, pp. 139-140.

Potts S. G., Roberts S. P. M., Dean R., Marris G., Brown M., Jones R., Settele J. (2010) - Declines of managed honeybees and beekeepers in Europe. J. Apic. Res., 49(1): 15-22 DOI 10.3896/ IBRA.

Rosenkranz P., Aumeier P., Ziegelmann B. (2010) - Biology and control of Varroa destructor. J. Inv. Path., 103: S96-S119. [online]

Schäfer M. O., Ritter W., Pettis J. S., Neumann P., (2010) - Winter losses of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera): The role of infestations with Aethina tumida and Varroadestructor. J. Econ. Ent., 103: 10-15. [online]

Semkiw P., Pohorecka K., Skubida P. (2008) - Skuteczność warroabójcza Biowaru, Baywarolu i kwasu szczawiowego w badaniach terenowych w 2007 roku. [Field studies on the varroacidal efficacy of Biowar, Bayvarol and oxalic acid in 2007]. In Materiały z XLVNaukowej Konferencji Pszczelarskiej, Puławy,Poland, 11-12 marca, 2008, pp. 81-83.

Spreafico M., Eördegh F. R., Bernardinelli I., Colombo M. (2001) - First detection of strains of Varroa destructor resistant to coumaphos. Results of laboratory test and field trials. Apidologie, 32: 49-55.

Topolska G., Gajda A., Pohorecka K., Bober A., Kasprzak S., Skubida M., Semkiw P. (2010) - Winter colony losses in Poland. J. Apic. Res., 49: 126-128 [online]

Wallner K. (1999) - Varroacides and their residues in bee products. Apidologie, 30(2-3): 235- 248.

Vallon J., Savary F., Jourdan P. (2007) - Suivi de l’efficacité des traitements contre Varroa destructor bénéficiant d’une AMM au cours de l’automne et l’hiver 2006/2007. BullTech Apic. 34(2): 49-54.

van Engelsdorp D., Hayes Jr. J., Underwood R. M., Caron D., Pettis J. (2011) - A survey of managed honey bee colony losses in the USA, fall 2009 to winter 2010. J. Apic. Res., 50: 1-10. DOI 10.3896/ IBRA.

Journal of Apicultural Science

The Journal of Research Institute of Horticulture and Apicultural Research Association

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.75
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.007

CiteScore 2017: 0.92

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.345
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.461


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 181 181 39
PDF Downloads 71 71 17