Review of the Expression of Antimicrobial Peptide Defensin in Honey Bees Apis Mellifera L.

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Review of the Expression of Antimicrobial Peptide Defensin in Honey Bees Apis Mellifera L.

Honey bees defensin have a high level of polymorphism and exist as two peptides - defensin 1 and 2. Defensin 1 is synthesized in the salivary glands and is responsible for social immunity. Defensin 2 is synthesized by cells of the fat body and hemolymph is responsible for individual immunity. Defensins are inducible and controlled by the interaction of Toll and Imd signaling pathways and have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action. The use of chitosan as an immunomodulator has been shown to lead to an increase in the expression levels of defensin and abaecin in the honey bee organism. Stimulation of the transcriptional activity of the defensin genes will allow for the control of a honey bee colony's immunity level, and reduce the using of antibiotics and other chemicals.

Ekspresja Peptydu Przeciwbakteryjnego - Defensyny u Pszczoły Miodnej Apis Mellifera L. - Praca przeglądowa

Pszczoła miodna posiada w wysokim stopniu zróżnicowaną defensynę występującą w postaci dwóch peptydów - defensyny 1 oraz 2. Defensyna 1 jest syntetyzowana w gruczołach ślinowych i odpowiada za odporność społeczną pszczół, natomiast defensyna 2 syntetyzowana jest przez komórki ciała tłuszczowego oraz w hemolimfie i odpowiada za odporność indywidualną. Defensyny są indukowalne. Regulowane są poprzez współoddziaływanie szlaków sygnalizacyjnych Toll i Imd. Defensyny posiadają szerokie spektrum działania przeciwbakteryjnego. Wykazano, że zastosowanie chitozanu jako immunomodulatora prowadzi do podniesienia poziomu ekspresji defensyny i abaecyny w organizmie pszczoły miodnej. Stymulowanie aktywności transkrypcyjnej genów defensynowych pozwoli kontrolować poziom odporności rodzin pszczelich oraz zmniejszyć zastosowanie antybiotyków i innych leczniczych środków chemicznych.

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