A new universal demosaicing method suitable for imaging pipelines using a RGB color filter array (CFA) is proposed. The proposed algorithm can reconstruct single-sensor images registered by a digital camera equipped with any RGB CFA currently in use. The algorithm includes a spatio-spectral interpolation model, a new edge-detection technique, and a post processing to reduce the color shifts and artifacts of the reconstructed image. Experimental results over various test CFA patterns and real images demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of a universal demosaicing algorithm proposed in the paper. Two methods - objective metrics (mean squared error - MSE and peak signal to noise ratio - PSNR), and subjective evaluation are used to analyze the results
1. Bayer, B. Color Imaging Array. U.S. Patent No. 3,971,065. Eastman Kodak Company, July 20, 1976.
2. Cok, D. Signal Processing Method and Apparatus for Producing Interpolated Chrominance Values in a Sampled Color Image Signal. U.S. Patent No. 4,642,678. Eastman Kodak Company, Feb. 10, 1987.
3. Condat, L. A Generic Variational Framework for Demosaicking and Performance Analysis of Color Filter Arrays. - Research Report, Hal 00442046, Apr. 2008.
4. Condat, L. Color Filter Array Design Using Random Patterns with Blue Noise Chromatic Spectra. - Image and Vision Computing, 28, Aug. 2010, No. 8, 1196-1202.
5. Freeman, W. Median Filter for Reconstructing Missing Color Samples. U.S. Patent No. 4,724,395, Cambridge, 1988.
6. Fujifilm X-Pro1, X-Trans CMOS. New Color Filter Array Available online at http://www.fujifilm.com/products/digital_cameras/x/fujifilm_x_pro1/.
7. Gu, J., P. Wolfe, M. Hirakawa. Filterbank-Based Universal Demosaicing. 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), 26-29 Sept. 2010, 1981-1984.
8. Hore, A., D. Ziou. An Edge-Sensing Universal Demosaicing Algorithm. ACIVS 2010, Part I, Springer-Verlag Berlin, 2010, 197-208.
9. Hore, A., D. Ziou. An Edge-Sensing Generic Demosaicing Algo- rithm with Application to Image Resampling. - IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 20, November 2011, No. 11, 3136-3150.
10. Hore, A., D. Ziou, M. Fortier. A Generic Demosaicing Algorithm Based on Diffusion Model. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 26-31 May 2013, 2488-2492.
11. Kodak Image Data Base [Online]. Available at http://r0k.us/graphics/kodak/.
12. Lian, N.-X., L. Chang, Y.-P. Tan and V. Zagorodnov. Adaptive Filtering for Color Filter Array Demosaicking. - IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, 16, Oct. 2007, No. 10, 2515-2525.
13. Lukac, R., K. N. Plataniotis. Universal Demosaicking for Imaging Pipelines with an RGB Color Filter Array. - Elsevier, Pattern Recognition, 38, 2005, 2208-2212.
14. Lukac, R., K. N. Plataniotis. Color Filter Arrays: Design and Performance Analysis. - IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 51, November 2005, No. 4, 1260-1267.
15. Menon, D., G. Calvagno. Color Image Demosaicking: An Overview. - Journal of Image Communication, 26, October 2011, Issue 8-9, 18-533.
16. Singh, M., T. Singh. Linear Universal Demosaicking of Regular Pattern Color Filter Arrays. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 25-30 March 2012, 1277-1280.
17. Zhu, W., K. Parker, M. Kriss. Color Filter Arrays Based on Mutually Exclusive Blue Noise Patterns. - Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, 10, 1999, 245-267