In her seminal 1998 work on ‘new wars’ Mary Kaldor developed a heuristic framework usefully for understanding the characteristics of armed non-state groups involved in contemporary conflicts. This framework was derived from analysing the 1992-1995 Bosnia-Herzegovina conflict. Some two decades after this however, adjustments may now be necessary. A focussed examination of the strategy used during 2014 by Islamic State Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) reveals Kaldor’s framework may now need to include a more explicit focus on the transnational. Since the mid-1990s, the transnational has been made more accessible by advances in social media in particular, and by globalization more generally. ISIS’s use of the transnational indicates this may be an area that astute non-state actors can advantageously exploit - perhaps better than states - although there are some difficulties involved. ISIS’s success suggests that the transnational may in time have greater influence on the politics of international society.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Abbas M. (2014). Can Islamic State keep control of Mosul? http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/11/iraq-mosul-islamic-state-occupy-lose.html (consulted 25 November 2014)
Al-Hayat. (2014). Saudi poll to reveal public’s level of sympathy for IS AlMonitor (22 July 2014). http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/politics/2014/07/saudi-families-refuse-condolences-isis-position.html (consulted 22 July 2014)
Al-Tamimi A. J. (2014). Iraqis Saudis call shots in Raqqa ISIL’s Syrian ‘capital’ Pundicityhttp://www.aymennjawad.org/14925/iraqis-saudis-call-shots-in-raqqa-isil-syrian (consulted 23 November 2014)
Ali A. S. (2014). Baghdadi vows revenge in announcing ‘Islamic State’ AlMonitor (3 July 2014). http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/2014/07/iraq-syria-baghdadi-call-muslims-caliphate.html (consulted 20 November 2014)
AlTamimi A. J. (2014). The Dawn of the Islamic State of Iraq and ashSham http://www.meforum.org/3732/islamic-state-iraq-ash-sham (consulted 22 November 2014)
Aly W. (2014). A Blunder Down Under FP:Argumenthttp://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2014/10/17/australia_terrorism_islamic_state_isis (consulted 25 November 2014)
Barrett R. (2014). The Islamic State. New York: The Soufan Group.
Bayoumy Y. (2014 22 September). ISIS urges more attacks on Western ‘disbelievers’ The Independenthttp://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isis-urges-more-attacks-on-western-disbelievers-9749512.html (consulted 26 November 2014)
Bishop J. (2014). Address To United Nations Security Council New York: Australian National Statement – Open Debate on CounterTerrorism http://foreignminister.gov.au/speeches/Pages/2014/jb_sp_141119.aspx (consulted 24 November 2014)
Bull H. (1995). The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (2nd Edition ed.). New York: Columbia University Press
Caris C. C. & Reynolds S. (2014). ISIS Goverance in Syria. Washington: Institute for the Study of War.
Christensen T. J. (1996). Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy Domestic Mobilization and Sino-American Conflict 1947-1958. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Cohen D. S. (2014). Attacking ISIL’s Financial Foundation http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/jl2672.aspx (consulted 22 November 2014)
Davis D. E. (2009). Non-State Armed Actors New Imagined Communities and Shifting Patterns of Sovereignty and Insecurity in the Modern World. Contemporary Security Policy 30(2) 221-245.
Eisenstadt M. (2014). Defeating ISIS: A Strategy for a Resilient Adversary and an Intractable Conflict. Policy Notes (20). http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/defeating-isis-a-strategy-for-a-resilient-adversary-and-an-intractable-conf (consulted 22 November 2014)
Fields L. (2014). Islamic State Releases ‘Eid Greetings’ Video Purporting to Show Foreign Fighters https://news.vice.com/article/islamic-state-releases-eid-greetings-video-purporting-to-show-foreign-fighters (consulted 22 November 2014)
Gordts E. (2014). 15000 Foreign Fighters Have Joined Extremist Groups In Iraq And Syria. Here’s Why They Went http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/11/08/foreign-fighters-iraq-syria_n_6116440.html (consulted 23 November 2014)
Halevi J. D. (2014). The mindset of a Canadian jihadist who joined ISIS and was killed in Syria Alternative Anglehttp://jonathanhalevi.blogspot.com.au/2014/07/the-mindset-of-canadian-jihadist-who.html (consulted 23 November 2014)
Hamid S. (2014). The Roots of the Islamic State’s Appeal The Atlantic Monthlyhttp://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/10/the-roots-of-the-islamic-states-appeal/382175/ (consulted 22 November 2014)
Hannigan R. (2014). The web is a terrorist’s command and control network of choice. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/c89b6c58-6342-11e4-8a63-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3Jm1Cy9Do (consulted 22 November 2014)
Haynes J. (2013). The ‘Arab Uprising’ Islamists and Democratization. Mediterranean Politics 18(2) 170-188.
Hubbard B. & Anonymous. (2014 24 July). Life in a Jihadist Capital: Order With a Darker Side. New York Times p. A1
Hurrell A. (2005). Legitimacy and the use of force: can the circle be squared? Review of International Studies 31(Supplement S1) 15-31.
Irshaid F. (2014). How ISIS is spreading its message online http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-27912569 (consulted 22 November 2014)
Johnson K. & Trindle J. (2014). Treasury’s War on the Islamic State. Foreign Policyhttp://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2014/10/23/treasurys_war_on_the_islamic_state_oil_kuwait_qatar (consulted 22 November 2104)
Kaldor M. (2012). New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era 3rd Edition. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Kaldor M. (2013). In Defence of New Wars. Stability 2(1)(4) 1-16.
Kingsley P. (2014). Who is behind ISIS’s terrifying online propaganda operation? http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/23/who-behind-isis-propaganda-operation-iraq (consulted 22 November 2014)
Knights M. (2014). ISIL’s Political-Military Power in Iraq. CTC Sentinel 7(8) 1-7.
Lannin S. (2014). Islamic State far greater threat than Al Qaeda and Taliban: terrorist financing expert http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-11-07/islamic-state-far-greater-threat-than-al-qaeda3a-expert/5874012 (consulted 22 November 2014)
Latham A. A. & Christenson J. (2013). Historicizing the ‘New Wars’: The case of Jihad in the early years of Islam. European Journal of International Relations 20(3) 766-786.
Lewis J. D. (2013). Al-Qaeda in Iraq Resurgent Part II. Washington: Institute for the Study of War.
Lewis J. D. (2014). The Islamic State: A Counter-Strategy for a Counter-State. Washington Institute for the Study of War.
Lynch M. (2006). Voices of the New Arab Public: Iraq al-Jazeera and Middle East Politics Today. New York: Columbia University Press
Lynch M. (2013). Twitter Devolutions: How social media is hurting the Arab Spring http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/02/07/twitter_devolutions_arab_spring_social_media (consulted 23 November 2014)
Malik S. (2014 20 November). French Isis fighters filmed burning passports and calling for terror at home The Guardianhttp://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/nov/20/french-isis-fighters-filmed-burning-passports-calling-for-terror (consulted 28 November 2014)
Marcus L. (2012). Is Twitter anything more than an online echo chamber? http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2012/aug/22/twitter-online-echo-chanber-leftwing (consulted 23 November 2014)
Marrapodi E. (2014). Central Command general to ISIS: We can hear you http://edition.cnn.com/2014/11/06/world/general-isis/ (consulted 25 November 2014)
Martin A. (2013). The web’s ‘echo chamber’ leaves us none the wiser http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-05/1/online-stubbornness (consulted 23 November 2014)
McCants W. (Ed.). (2006). Militant Ideology Atlas; Executive Report. West Point: Combating Terrorism Center.
Miranda C. British counter terrorism officials to wage cyber war on ISIS in bid to stop home grown jihad http://www.news.com.au/world/middle-east/british-counter-terrorism-officials-to-wage-cyber-war-on-isis-in-bid-to-stop-home-grown-jihad/story-fnh81ifq-1227103933708 (consulted 22 November 2014)
Mironova V. & Whitt S. (June 2014). A Glimpse into the Minds of Four Foreign Fighters in Syria CTC Sentinel 7(6) 5-7.
Mitchel P. (2014 31 October). ‘Stay in Australia ... behead people’: Islamic State ‘plot’ prompted US security fears. The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/world/stay-in-australia--behead-people-islamic-state-plot-prompted-us-security-fears-20141031-11er77.html (consulted 20 November 2014)
Pew. (2011). Muslim-Western Tensions Persist. Washington Pew Research Center.
Pew. (2013). The World’s Muslims: Religion Politics and Society. Washington: Pew Research Center.
Pew. (2014). Concerns about Islamic Extremism on the Rise in Middle East. Washington: Pew Research Center.
Powell R. (2014). Cats and Kalashnikovs: Behind the ISIL Social Media Strategy http://www.smh.com.au/world/cats-and-kalashnikovs-behind-the-isil-social-media-strategy-20140625-zsk50.html (consulted 22 November 2014)
Reus-Smit C. (2004). American Power and World Order. Cambridge: Polity Press Ltd.
Reus-Smit C. (2007). International Crises of Legitimacy. International Politics 44(2-3) 157-174.
Rose S. (2014). The ISIS propaganda war: a hitech media jihad. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/07/isis-media-machine-propaganda-war (consulted 22 November 2014)
Ryan L. (2014). Al-Qaida and ISIS Use Twitter Differently. Here’s How and Why http://www.nationaljournal.com/tech/al-qaida-and-isis-use-twitter-differently-here-s-how-and-why-20141009 (consulted 22 November 2014)
Scharpf F. W. (1999). Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Semple K. (2014 14 November). Yazidi Girls Seized by ISIS Speak Out After Escape. New York Times p. A4. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/15/world/middleeast/yazidi-girls-seized-by-isis-speak-out-after-escape.html?_r=0 (consulted 20 November 2014)
Stanford. (2014). Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. Mapping Militant Organizationshttp://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/1 (consulted 20 November 2014)
Wahid A. (2008). Living with the caliphate. Prospect January (142).
WorldPublicOpinion.org. (2007). Muslim Public Opinion on US Policy Attacks on Civilians and al Qaeda. College Park: Center for International Security Studies at Maryland.