The recent development unfolding in the Arab region forces the observer into the question of security and stability. The Middle East region has been coined with violence and transformations with the growing inability to bring the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to an end. The history of Lebanon is not separate from the surrounding danger. For that end, Hizbullah has pushed Lebanon into the heart of the Israeli-Palestinian struggle. This article investigates the role Hizbullah plays amidst regional conflicts, and its ability to stand out as a religio-political party able to face the Israeli aggression and withstand its religious identity. Interestingly, this has been a key to the Party’s success, where the Party’s religious identity and politics go hand in hand. As such, this paper offers the reader an analysis of how Hizbullah uses religion to its favour, and how religion (specifically Shi’ism) offers a ground for political pragmatism to be justified.
AbuKhalil, A. a. (1991). “Ideology and Practice of Hizballa in Lebanon: Islamization of Leninist Organizational Principles.” Middle Eastern Studies 27(3): 390-403.
Alagha, J. (2006). The Shifts in Hizbullah’s Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology, and Political Program. Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press.
Alagha, J. (2011). Hizbullah’s Identity Construction. Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press.
Alagha, J. E. (2011). Hizbullah’s Documents: From the 1985 Open Letter to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press.
Ali, A. Y. (1983). The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary. U.S.A., Amana Corp.
Bordenkircher, E. (2007). Islamists and a Pluralist Society: Hezbollah and jama’ah a-l Isla’mi’yah’s consociational experience in Lebanon. Strategic and Defense Studies Centre. M. Thatcher. Australia, The Australian National University.
Buzan, B. (2004). From International to World Society? English School Theory and the Social Structure of Globalisation. United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press.
Bygrave, S. M. a. S. (2008). Foucault in an age of Terror: Essays on biopolitics and the Defence of Society. London, Palgrave Macmillan.
Coughlin, C. (2010). Khomeini’s Ghost. London, Pan Books.
Deeb, L. (2006) Hizbullah: A primer.
Eisenlohr, R. S. (2008). Shi’ite Lebanon: Transnational religion and the Making of National Identites. New York, Columbia University Press.
Ezani, E. (2011). “Hezbollah’s strategy of “walking on the edge”: Between political game and political violence.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 35(11).
Fawcett, L. (2009). International Relations of the Middle East. New York, Oxford University Press.
George, R. D. A. B. a. J. (2012). An Introduction to International Relations New York, Cambridge University Press.
Hallaq, W. B. (2005). The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Halliday, F. (2005). The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics and Ideology. United kingdom, Cambridge University Press.
Hamzeh, A. N. (2004). In the Path of Hizbullah. New York, Syracuse University Press.
Harik, J. P. (2004). Hezbollah: The Changing Face of Terrorism. London and New York, I.B. Tauris.
Herrick, J. (2010). Nonstate actors: A comparative analysis of change and development within Hamas and Hezbollah. New York, The American University in Cairo Press.
Hirst, D. (2010). Beware of Small States: Lebanon, battleground of the Middle East. England, CPI Bookmarque.
Hower, R. (2009). “The Context of Casuistry. Edited by James F. Keenan, S.J., and Thomas A. Shannon. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1995. xiv + 231 pp. $24.95.” Church History 66(03): 688.
Johansen, B. (1995). “Casusitry: between legal conext and social praxis.” BRILL 2(2): 135-156.
Jones, R. W. (2001). Critical Theory and World Politics. London, Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Keddie, J. R. I. C. a. N. R. (1986). Shi’ism and Social Protest. New Haven and London, Yale University Press.
Khalaf, R. (2006). Shia of Lebanon emerge from poverty to face charges of overstepping their powers. The Financial Times. London, England, The Financial Times 10.
Khan, M. S. A. (1929). “The Mohaamden Laws Against Usury and How they are Evaded.” Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law, Third Series 11(4): 233-244.
Khatib, L. (2013). Image politics in the Middle East: the role of the visual in political struggle. London, New York, I.B. Tauris.
Kirk, K. K. (1999). Conscience and Its Problems: An Introduction to Casuistry. Louisville, Kentucky, John Knox Press.
Klaushofer, A. (2007). Paradise Divided: A portrait of Lebanon. Oxford, Signal Books.
Leander, S. G. a. A. (2006). Constructivism and International Relations: Alexander Wendt and his Critics. London and New York, Routledge: Taylor&Francis Group.
Leites, E. (1988). Conscience and Casusitry in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge Camabridge University Press.
Love, J. B. (2010). Hezbollah: Social Services as a Source of Power. J. Anderson. Florida, Joint Special Operations University. 10: 1-50.
Mansour, I. (2010). “Washington and Hezbollah: A Rare Convergence of Interests.” Middle East Policy XVII(2): 1-24.
McDowall, D. (1982). Lebanon: A conflict of minorities. London, The Minority Rights Group. 61.
Michael E, B. S. M. L.-J. S. E. M. (1995). The Perils of Anarchy: Contemporary Realism and International Security. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England, The MIT Press.
Miller, R. B. (1996). Casuistry and Modern Ethics. Chicago and London, The University of Chicago Press.
Moussawi, I. (2011). Shi’ism and the Democratization process in Iran: with a focus on Wilayat Al-Faqih. London, Saqi Books.
Movement, F. P. (2006). Paper of common Understanding between Hezbollah and the Free Patriotic Movement. Lebanon: 1-3.
Nasr, V. (2007). The Shia Revival: How conflicts within Islam will shape the future. London, W.W. Norton & Company Ltd
Navari, C. (2009). Theorising International Society. London, Palgrave Macmillan.
Noe, N. (2006). The relationship between Hizbullah & the United States in light of the current situation in the Middle East. Cambridge, University of Cambridge.
Norton, A. R. (2007). Hezbollah: A short history. Princeton and Oxford, Princeton University Press.
Norton, A. R. (2007). “The Role of Hezbollah in Lebanese Domestic Politics.” The International Spectator 42(4): 475-491.
Qasim, N. (2010). Hizbullah. London, Saqi.
Rajchman, J. (2006). The Chomsky-Foucault Debate on Human Nature. London, New York, The New Press.
Ranstorp, M. (1997). Hizb’allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis. London, MacMillan Press LTD.
Rowe, S. B. C. (2002). Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press.
Roy, O. (2004). Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah. New York, Columbia University Press.
Saad-Ghorayeb, A. (2002). Hizbullah: Politics and Religion. London, Pluto Press.
Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. London, Penguine Books.
Salibi, K. (1988). A House of Many Mansions: The Hisotry of Lebanon Reconsidered. London, University of California Press.
Sankari, J. (2005). Fadlallah: the making of a radical Shii’te leader. London, Saqi.
Shaery-Eisenlohr, R. (2008). Shi’ite Lebanon: Transnational Religion & the making of National Identities U.S., Columbia University Press.
Shah, M. D. T. D. P. T. S. (2011). God’s Century: Resurgent Religion and Global Politics. United States, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Slim, R. (2012). “Introduction to the Environment and the Middle East: New Approches and New Actors “ Middle East Institute II: 31.
Stevenson, S. N. S. a. J. (2001). “Declawing the “Party of God”: Toward Normalization in Lebanon.” World Policy Journal 2(2001): 30-41.
Traboulsi, F. (2007). A History of Modern Lebanon. London, Pluto Press.
Toulmin, A. R. J. S. (1988). The Abuse of Casuistry: A history of Moral Reasoning. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, University of California Press.
Vairel, J. B. a. F. (2013). Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa. Stanford, California, Stanford University Press.
Viroli, M. (1988). Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the ‘well-ordered society’. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Volk, L. (2009). “Martyrs at the Margins: The Politics of Neglect in Lebanon’s Borderlands.” Middle Eastern Studies 45(2): 263-282.
Waltz, K. N. (1979). Theory of International Politics. University of California, Berkeley, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Waltz, S. S. a. K. (1971). Conflict in World Politics. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Winthrop Publishers, INC.
Wege, C. A. (2012). “Hizballah’s Counterintelligence Apparatus.” International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 25(4): 771-785.
Wendt, A. (1999). Social Theory of International Politics. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
Wiegand, K. E. (2009). “Reformation of a Terrorist Group: Hezbollah as a Lebanese Political Party.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 32(8): 669-680.
Wieseltier, L. (2011). “The Casuist.” New Republic(October): 1-2.
Will Fulton, A. L., Stephen Gailliot, Gisue Mehdi, Paige Stabolepszy, Katherine Faley (2011). “Iran-Lebanese Hezbollah Relationship Tracker.” from http://www.irantracker.org/military-activities/iran-lebanese-hezbollah-relationship-tracker-2011.
Wright, G. H. V. (1963). The Varities of Goodness. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Wright, J. (2006). “Argument in Holocaust Denial: The differences between Historical Casuistry and Denial Casuistry.” the Journal of the American Forensic Association 43(fall): 51-64.
Young, M. (2010). The Ghosts of Martyrs Square: an eyewitness account og Lebanon’s life struggle. New York, Simon & Schuster.