Spondias mombin (Linn), Nymphaea lotus (Linn) and Luffa cylindrica (Linn) (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill) are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antigenotoxicity was assessed by the bone marrow micronucleus test. The highest attainable dose of 5 000 mg/kg according to OECD guidelines was first used to assess acute toxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts in Swiss albino mice. For each extract, there were five groups of mice (n=4/group) treated with different concentrations of the extract as against the negative and positive control group for the genotoxicity study. In the antigenotoxicity study, five groups of mice were exposed to five different concentrations of the extracts along with 60 mg/kg of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), which was used to induce genotoxicity. The mice were administered 0.2 mL of extract per day for 10 days in the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity groups. Administration of each of the extracts at the concentration of 5 000 mg/kg did not induce acute toxicity in mice. At the concentrations tested, all the extracts, except aqueous S. mombin, increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of N. lotus increased the frequency of aberrant sperm cells. All the extracts were also able to ameliorate MMS induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of the exposed mice. The results showed the potential of the extracts to induce somatic and germ cell mutation in male mice. The extracts also ameliorated the genotoxic effect of MMS.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Abozed SS El-kalyoubi M Abdelrashid A Salama MF. (2014). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts from whole wheat and bran. Annals of Agric Sci59(1): 63–67.
Accioly MP Bevilaqua CML Fernana CM Rondon FCM de Morais SM Machado LKA Almeida CA de Andrade Jr HF Cardoso RPA. (2012). Leishmanicidal activity in vitro of Musa paradisiaca L. and Spondia smombin L. fractions. Vet Parasitol187: 79–84.
Aduloju RK Otubanjo OA Odeigah PGC. (2008). An In Vivo Assay of the Mutagenic Potential of Praziquantel (PZQ) Using Sperm Head Abnormality Test. J Hum Ecol23(1): 59–63.
Afolayan AJ Sharaibi OJ Kazeem MI. (2013). Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant activity of Nymphaea lotus L. Int J Pharmacol9(5): 297–304.
Ahmad B Khan AA. (2013). Antibacterial antifungal and phytotoxic activities of Luffa cylindrica and Momordica charantia. J Med Plant Res7(22): 1593–1599.
Aitken RJ de Iuliis GN McLachlan RI. (2009). Biological and clinical significance of DNA damage in the male germ line. Intern J Androl32: 46–56.
Akinjogunla OJ Yah CS Eghafona NO Ogbemudia FO. (2010). Antibacterial activity of leave extracts of Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaeaceae) on Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) isolated from clinical samples. Annals Biol Res1(2): 174–184.
Akinmoladun AC Obuotor EM Barthwal MK Dikshit M Farombi EO. (2010). Ramipril-like activity of Spondias mombin Linn against no-flow ischemia and isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rat heart. Cardiovas Tox10(4): 295–305.
Akouedegni CG Koudande OD Ahoussi E Hounzangbe-Adote MS. (2013). Effects of the fresh leaves of Spondias mombin L. on milk production of West African Dwarf (WAD) ewes and their lamb’s growth performance. J Ani Sci Adv3(2): 74–82.
Alabi OA Bakare AA. (2011). Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of electronic waste leachates using animal bioassays. Tox Env Chem93(5): 1073–1088.
Alvarez JG Touchstone JC Blascol JC Storey BT. (1987). Spontaneous lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in human spermatozoa: superoxide dismutase as major enzyme protectant against oxygen toxicity. J Androl18: 338–348.
Alves ABCR dos Santos RS Calil SD Niero R Lopes JD Perazzo FF Rosa PCB Andrade SF Cechinel-Filho V Maistro EL. (2014). Genotoxic assessment of Rubus imperialis (Rosaceae) extract in vivo and its potential chemoprevention against cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage. J Ethnopharmacol153: 694–700.
Asuquo OR Udonwa UN Eluwa MA Ekanem TB. (2013a). Effects of Spondias Mombin leaf extract on the cytoarchitecture of the cerebal cortex and on learning and memory in Wistar Rats. Int J Sci Res2(9): 5–8.
Asuquo RO Ekanem BT Udoh BP Mesembe EO Ebong EP. (2013b). Haematinic potential of Spondias Mombin leaf extract in Wistar Rats. Adv Biores4(2): 53–56.
Asuquo OR Oko OOK Brownson ES Umoetuk GB Utin IS. (2013c). Effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin on the pituitary gonadal axis of female Wistar rats. Asian Pacific J Reprod2(3): 169–173.
Ayoka AO Akomolafe RO Iwalewa EO Ukponmwan OE. (2005). Studies on the anxiolytic effects of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardicaea) extracts. Afri J Trad Compl Alt Med2(2): 153–165.
Ayoka AO Akomolafe RO Iwalewa EO Akanmu MA Ukponmwan OE. (2006). Sedative antiepileptic and antipsychotic effects of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiacaea) in mice and rats. J Ethnopharmacol103: 166–175.
Bakare AA Mosuro AA Osibanjo O. (2005). An in vivo evaluation of induction of abnormal sperm morphology in mice by landfill leachates. Mutat Res582(1–2): 28–34.
Bakkali F Averbeck S Averbeck D Zhiri A Idaomar M. (2005). Cytotoxicity and gene induction by some essential oils in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutat Res585: 1–13.
Balakrishnan N Huria T. (2011). Protective effect of Luffa cylindrica L. fruit in Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Int J Pharm Biol Arch2(6): 1761–1764.
Balakrishnan N Sharma A. (2013). Preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Luffa cylindrica L. fruit. Asian J Pharm Clin Res6(2): 113–116.
Briskin DP. (2000). Medicinal plants and phytomedicines linking plant biochemistry and physiology to human health. Plant Physiol124: 507–514.
Cassidy SL Dix KM Jenkins T. (1983). Evaluation of a testicular sperm head counting technique using rats exposed to dimethoxyethyl phthalate (DMEP) glycerol alpha-monochlorohydrin (GMCH) epichlorohydrin (ECH) formaldehyde (FA) or methyl methanesulphonate (MMS). Arch Tox53(1): 71–78.
Chaurasia S Sharma V Iqbal dar A Arya N Saxena RC Chaurasia ID Shrivastava R. (2011). In vivo antidiabetic activity of alcoholic and aqueous extract of Nymphaea lotus in rat model. Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacol
Coates NJ Gilpin ML Guynn MN Lewis DE Milner PH Spear SR Tyler JW. (1994). A novel beta-lactamase inhibitor isolated from Spondias mombin. J Nat Prod57: 654–657.
Craig GM Newman DJ Snader KM. (1997). Natural products in drug discovery and development. J Nat Prod60: 52–60.
Cuyacot AR Mahilum JJM Madamba MSB. (2014). Cytotoxicity potentials of some medicinal plants in Mindanao Philippines. Asian J Plant Sci Res 4(1): 81–89.
Du Q Xu Y Li L Zhao Y Jerz G Winterhalter P. (2006). Antioxidant constituents in the fruits of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. J Agric Food Chem54(12): 4186–4190.
Ferguson LR. (2001). Role of plant polyphenols in genomic stability. Mutat Res475: 89–111.
Ferreira-Machado SC Gagliardi RF Nunes APM Rodrigues MP Dantas FJS De Mattos JCP Peregrin CAF Moura EG Caldeira-de-Araujo A. (2014). Antidiabetic and genotoxic effects on Wistar rats treated with aqueous extract from Chrysobalanus icaco L. J Med Plants Res8(1): 52–57.
Fred-Jaiyesimi A Kio A Richard W. (2009). α-Amylase inhibitory effect of 3β-olean-12-en-3-yl (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoate isolated from Spondias mombin leaf. Food Chem116: 285–288.
Hamenoo NA. (2010). Hepatoprotective and toxicological assessment of spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in rodents. M. Phil thesis. Department of Pharmacology Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. 83pp.
Hazra M KunduSen S Bhattacharya S Haldar PK Gupta M Mazumder UK. (2011). Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Luffa cylindrica fruit extract in rats. J Adv Pharm Edu Res2: 138–146.
Hugenholtz AP Bruce WR. (1983). Radiation induction of mutations affecting sperm morphology in mice. Mutat Res107: 177–185.
Hwang Y Park H Ma JY. (2013). In vitro and in vivo safety evaluation of Acer tegmentosum. J Ethnopharmacol148: 99–105.
Idu M Obaruyi GO Erhabor JO. (2008). Ethnobotanical uses of plants among the Binis in the treatment of ophthalmic and ENT (EAR Nose and Throat) ailments. Ethnobot Leaflets13: 480–496.
Igwe CU Ojiako AO Nwaogu LA Onyeze GOC. (2008). Lipid lowering effect of aqueous leaf extract of Spondias mombin Linn. The Internet J Pharmacol6(1): 1–9.
Igwe CU Ojiako OA Nwaogu LA Iwueke AV. (2012). Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of African plants: Activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Spondias mombin linn. J Res Pharmacol1: 1–9.
Kamatenesi-Mugisha M Makawiti DW Oryem-Origa H Olwa-Odyek Nganga J. (2007). The oxytocic properties of Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem. and Bidens pilosa L. traditionally used medicinal plants from western Uganda. Afr J Eco45: 88–93.
Kanwal W Syed AW Salman A Mohtashee HM. (2013). Anti-emetic and anti-inflammatory activity of fruit peel of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. Asian J Nat Appl Sci2(2): 175–180.
Khan KW Ahmed SW Ahmed S Hasan MM. (2013). Antiemetic and anti-inflammatory activity of leaves and flower extracts of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. The J Ethnobiol Tradl Med Photon118: 258–263.
Ko RJ. 2004. A U.S. perspective on the adverse reactions from traditional Chinese medicines. J Chin Med Ass67: 109–116.
Kothari S Thompson A Agarwal A Plessis SS. (2010). Free radicals: their beneficial and detrimental effects on sperm function. Ind J Exp Biol48: 425–435.
Krishna G Hayashi M. (2000). In vivo rodent micronucleus assay: Protocol conduct and data interpretation. Mutat Res455: 155–66S.
Lather A Valecha R Sharma K Garg M. (2011). Worldwide potential of plants causing teratogenicity: An overview. Spatula DD1(2): 101–106.
Leffa DD da Rosa R Munhoz BP Mello ADM Mandelli FD Amaral PD Rossatto AE de Andrade VM. (2012). Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of Calendula officinalis extracts in mice treated with methylmethane sulfonate. Adv Life Sci2(2): 21–28.
Loomis TA Hayes AW. (1996). Loomis’s Essentials of Toxicology 4th ed. Academic Press California pp. 208–245.
Mary RR Begum SMI. (2014). Antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) from leaf and stem against Human pathogens. Int J Sci Res3(8): 487–489.
Mao ZS Xu ZC Song XF Ma QX. (2004). Effects of Luffa-extract on the macrophage function in mice. J Xinxiang Med Col21(2): 80–82.
Muthumani P Meera R Mary S Jeenamathew Devi P Kameswari B Priya BE. (2010). Phytochemical screening and anti inflammatory bronchodilator and antimicrobial activities of the seeds of Luffa cylindrica. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci1(4): 11–22.
Nikolettos N Kiipker W Demirel C Schopper B Blasig C Sturm R Felberbaum R Bauer O Diedrich K Al-Hasani S. (1999). Fertilization potential of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology. Hum Reprod14(Suppl. 1): 47–70.
Nworu CS Akah PA Okoli CO Okoye TC. (2007). Oxytocic activity of leaf extract of Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae). Pharm Biol45(5): 366–371.
Nworu CS Akah PA Okoye FBC Toukam DK Udeh J Esimone CO. (2011). The leaf extract of Spondias mombin L. displays an anti-inflammatory effect and suppresses inducible formation of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide (NO). J Immunotox8(1): 10–16.
Odeigah PC. (1997). Sperm head abnormalities and dominant lethal effects of formaldehyde in albino rats. Mutat Res389: 141–148.
Odunola OA Akinwumi KA Ibegbu DM. (2011). The influence of garlic and Spondias mombin on Sodium arsenite induced clastogenicity and hepatotoxicity in rats. The Pacific J Sci Tech12(2): 401–409.
Ola-Davies O Ajani OS Oyeyemi MO. (2014). Spermatozoa morphology and characteristics of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) protected male Wistar rats exposed to sodium arsenite. J Vet Med Ani Health6(2): 63–66.
Oyedare BM Bakare AA Akinboro A. (2009). Genotoxicity assessment of water extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Morinda lucida and Citrus medica using the Allium cepa assay. BLACPMA8(2): 97–103.
Oyeyemi IT Bakare AA. (2013). Genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effect of aqueous extracts of Spondias mombin L. Nymphaea Lotus L. and Luffa cylindrica L. on Allium cepa root cells. Carylogia66(4): 360–367.
Pakoussi T Mouzou A Metowogo K Agbonon A Eklu-Gadegbeku K Aklikokou AK Gbeassor M. (2013). Effects of Spondias mombin Linn (Anacardiaceae) on rat parturition. Int J Biol Chem Sci7(2): 441–446.
Pal RJ Manoj J. (2011). Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of fruits of Luffa cylindrica Linn in rats. Annals of Biol Res2(1): 132–141.
Partap S Kumar A Sharma NK Jha KK. (2012a). Luffa Cylindrica: An important medicinal plant. J Nat Prod Plant Resour2(1): 127–134.
Partap S Kumar S Kumar A Sharma NK Jha KK. (2012b). In vitro anthelmintic activity of Luffa cylindrica leaves in Indian adult earthworm. J Pharmacognosy Phytochem1(2): 30–34.
Pauly G Fleury M. (2002). Cosmetic containing plant extracts. Official Gazette of U.S. Patents and Trademark Office. Patents 1259(3).
Pillay P Phulukdaree A Chuturgoon AA Toit KD Bodenstein J. (2013). The cytotoxic effects of Scilla nervosa (Burch.) Jessop (Hyacinthaceae) aqueous extract on cultured HepG2 cells. J Ethnopharmacol145: 200–204.
Prakash YG Ilango K Kumar S Elumalai A. (2010). In vitro antioxidant activity of Luffa cylindrica seed oil. J Global Pharma Tech2(3): 93–97.
Raji Y Gbadegesin MA Osonuga OA Adisa RA Akinsomisoye OS Awobajo FO Kunle-Alabi OT Esegbue Peters PRC Osonuga IO Lamidi AF. (2006). Reproductive Haematogic and Biochemical profile of male rats treated with aqueous extract of S. mombin bark. Int J Pharmacol2(1): 126–130.
Rodeiro I Cancino L Gonzalez JE Morffi J Garrido G Gonzalez RM Nunez A Delgado R. (2006). Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) a new natural product with antioxidant activity. Food Chem Tox44: 1707–1713.
Rosidah Y Yam MF Sadikun A Ahmad M Akowuah GA Asmawi MZ. (2009). Toxicology evaluation of standardized methanol extract of Gynura procumbens. J Ethnopharmacol123: 244–249.
Rufino MSM Alves RE Fernandes FAN Brito ES. (2011). Free radical scavenging behavior of ten exotic tropical fruits extracts. Food Res Int44: 2072–2075.
Santos FJB Moura DJ Peres DJ Sperotto ARM Caramao EB Cavalcante AACM Saffi J. (2012). Genotoxic and mutagenic properties of Bauhinia platypetala extract a traditional Brazilian medicinal plant. J Ethnopharmacol144: 474–482.
Schmeiser HH Stiborova M Arlt VM. (2009). Chemical and molecular basis of the carcinogenicity of Aristolochia plants. Curr Opinion Drug Discovery Devept12(1): 141–148.
Schmidt W. (1976). The micronucleus test for cytogenetic analysis. In Hollaender A. (ed.) Chemical Mutagens Vol. 4. Plenum Press New York pp. 31–53.
Sowemimo AA Fakoya FA Awopetu I Omobuwajo OR Adesanya SA. (2007). Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants. J Ethnopharmacol113(3): 427–432.
Taylor RJ. (1980). Food Additives. John Wiley and Sons New York.
Tomlinson B Chan TY Chan JC Critchley JA But PP. (2000). Toxicity of complementary therapies: an eastern perspective. J Clin Pharmacol 40: 451–456.
Uchendu CN Isek T. (2008). Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae) in rats. Afri Health Sci8(3): 163–167.
Ulrich-Merzenich G Zeitler H Jobst D Panek D Vetter H Wagner H. (2007). Application of the „Omic“ technologies in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine14: 70–82.
Van den Berg SJPL Restani P Boersma MG Delmulle L Rietjens IMCM. (2011). Levels of genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds in plant food supplements and associated risk assessment. Food Nutr Sci2: 989–1010.
Verschaeve L Van Staden J. (2008). Mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of extracts from South African traditional medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol119: 575–587.
Wahnschaffe U Bitsch A Kielhorn J Mangelsdorf I. (2005). Mutagenicity testing with transgenic mice. Part I: Comparison with the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. J Carcinogenesis4: 3–16.
WHO – World Health Organization (2002). Traditional Medicine Growing Needs and Potential – WHO Policy Perspectives on Medicines No. 002 May World Health Organization Geneva Switzerland.
Wyrobek AJ Bruce WR. (1975). Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice. PNAS72: 4425–4429.
Wyrobek AJ Bruce WR. (1978). The induction of sperm-shape abnormalities in mice and humans. Volume 5 pp. 257–285. In: Chemical Mutagens. A. Hollander and F.J. de Serres (Eds.). Plenum Press New York.
Wyrobek AJ Bruce WR. (1980). The induction of sperm shape abnormalities in mice and human in: A. Hollander F.J. de Serres _Eds.. Chemical Mutagens vol. 5 Plenum New York. pp. 257–285.
Wyrobek AJ Gordon LA Burkhart JG Francis MW Kapp Jr RW Letz G Malling JC Topham HG Whorton MD. (1983). An evaluation of the mouse sperm morphology test and other sperm tests in non-human mammals. A report of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Gene –Tox Programme. Mutat Res115: 1–72.
Zeiger E. 2003. Illusions of safety: antimutagens can be mutagens and anti-carcinogens can be carcinogens. Mutat Res543(3): 191–194.
Zini A Al-Hathal N. (2011). Antioxidant therapy in male infertility: fact or fiction? Asian J Androl13: 374–381.