Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute) and of repeated doses (sub-acute) administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female) were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control), while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Adesokan AA Akanji MA. (2003). Effect of administration of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha on the activities of some enzymes in the small intestine of rats. Niger J Biochem Mol Biol18(2): 103–105.
Adzu B Abbah J Vongtau H Gamaniel K. (2003). Studies on the use of Cassia singueana in malaria ethnopharmacy. J Ethnopharmacol88: 261–267.
Agrawal S Kulkarni GT Sharma VN. (2010). A Comparative Study on the Anti-oxidant Activity of Methanol Extracts of Acacia nilotica and Berberis chitria. Adv In Nat Appl Sci4(1): 78–84.
Akanji MA Ngaha EO. (1989). Effect of repeated administration of berenil on urinary excretion with corresponding tissue pattern in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol64: 272–275.
Akanji MA Olagoke OA Oloyede OB. (1993). Effect of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on the integrity of the kidney cellular system. Toxicol81: 173–179.
Akanji MA Yakubu MT. (2000). α-Tocopherol protects against metabisulphite-induced tissue damage in rats. Nig J Biochem Mol Biol15: 179–183.
Ali SI Faruqi SA. (1969). Hybridization in Acacia nilotica complex. Pakistan J Bot1: 119–128.
Alli LA Adesokan AA Salawu OA Akanji MA Tijani AY. (2011). Anti-plasmo-dial activity of aqueous root extract of Acacia nilotica. Afr J Biochem Res5(7): 214–219.
Asif M. (2012). A brief study of toxic effects of some medicinal herbs on kidney. Adv Biomed Res1: 44–47.
Bargal K Bargali SS. (2009). Acacia nilotica: a multipurpose leguminous plant. Nat Sci7(4): 11–19.
Brenan JP. (1983). Manual on taxonomy of Acacia species: present taxonomy of four species of Acacia (A. albidaA. senegalA. niloticaA. tortilis). FAO Rome: 20–24.
Colson CR De Broe ME. (2005). Kidney injury from alternative medicines. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis12: 261–75.
Crook MA. (2006). Clinical chemistry and metabolic medicine seventh edition. Edward Arnold publishers 200–280.
Delvin TM. (2006). Intermediary metabolism: in Textbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations. Sixth edition Wiley-Liss publications 700–730.
Eline MB Ouedraogo ZL Heide D. (2004). Effect of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat. J Endocrin182: 257–266.
Etkin NL. (1997). Antimalarial plants used by Hausa in Northern Nigeria. Trop Doct27: 12–16.
National Academy of Sciences. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals National Academy Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/5140.html
New TR. (1984). A Biology of Acacias Oxford University Press Melbourne 153–158.
Newman DJ Cragg GM. (2007). Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. J Nat Prod70: 461–477.
Nwachukwu N Iweala EJ. (2009). Influence of extraction methods on the hepatotoxicity of Azadirachta indica bark extract on albino rats. Global J Pure Appl Sci15(3): 369–372.
Oladosu P Samuel BB Okhale SE Ibrahim K Okogun JI. (2007). Antitubercular activity of the dried fruits of Acacia nilotica. J Phytomed Therapeut12: 76–79.
Olson H Betton G Robinson D Thomas K Monro A Kolaja G Lilly P Sanders J Sipes G Bracken W Dorato M VanDeun K Smith P Berger B Heller A. (2000). Concordance of toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans and in animals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol32: 56–67.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2001). OECD guideline 423. Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents. OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals423: 1–8.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (1995). OECD guideline 407. Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents. OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals407: 1–8.
Pagana KD Pagana TJ. (1998). Guideline for aminotransferase assay: In Mosby’s manual of diagnostic and laboratory tests 42–105.
Ramesh T Lee K Lee HW Kim SJ. (2007). Acute oral toxicity study of Asiasari radix extract in mice. Int J Toxicol26: 247–251.
Raza M Al-Shabanah OA El-Hadiyah TM Al-Majed AA. (2002). Effect of prolonged vigabatrin treatment on haematological and biochemical parameters in plasma liver and kidney of Swiss albino mice. Sci Pharmaceutic70: 135–145.
Van Wyk P. (2000). Field Guide to trees of Southern Africa. Struik Publishing Cape Town.
Zimmerman HJ Ishak KG. 1979. Hepatic injuries due to drugs and toxins. In Pathology of the liver Macsween et al (eds). Churchill Livingstone. Medical division of Longman Group Limited 335–338.