Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

Open access

ABSTRACT

It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A-E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use.

Aboyade OM, Yakubu MT, Grierson DS, Afolayan AJ. (2009). Studies on the toxicological eff ect of the aqueous extract of the fresh, dried and boiled berries of Solanum aculeastrum in male Wistar rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 28: 765-775.

Adebayo AH, Abolaji AO, Opata TK, Adegbenro IK. (2010). Eff ects of ethanolic leaf extract of Chrysophyllum albidum G. on biochemical and haematological parameters of albino Wistar rats. Afr J Biotechnol 9: 2145-2150.

Adesokan AA, Akanji MA, Yakubu MT. (2007). Antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha stem bark. Afr J Biotech 6(22): 2502-2505.

Adjanohoun JF, Aboubakar N, Dramane K, Ebot ME, Ekpere JA, Enow-Orock EG. (1996). Traditional Medecine and Pharmacopoeia: Contribution to Ethnobotanic and Floristic Studies in Cameroon. Organization of African Unity Scientifi c, Technical and Research Commission. Centre Nationale de Production des Manuels Scolaires, Porto-Novo. Benin. 51: 63.

Agbaje EO, Onabanjo AO. (1994). Toxicological study of the extracts of antimalarial medicinal plant Enantia chlorantha. Cent Afr J Med 40(3): 71-3.

Agbaje EO, Onabanjo AO. (1998). Analgesic and antipyretic actions of Enantia chlorantha extract in some laboratory animals. Nig J Nat Prod Med 2: 24-25.

Agbaje EO and Babatunde EO. (2005). A KAP study of the Attitude and Practice of Traditional Medicine in a Contemporary Nigerian Community. Centr Afr J Med 51(5/6): 58-62.

Centre d’Analyse des Politiques Economiques et Sociales (CAPES). (2006). Etat des lieux des savoirs locaux au Burkina Faso. Inventaire des bonnes pratiques et propositions pour leur contribution au développement. Ouagadougou. 448 p.

Chattopadhyay RR. (2003). Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract: part II. J Ethnopharmacol 89: 217-219.

Cheesbrough M. (2000) Haematological tests. In Cheesbrough M. (Ed) District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Part 2. Cambridge Low Price Edition, pp: 267-380.

Cowan MM. (1999). Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 12: 564-582.

Delaveau P. (1988). Polyphénols et tanins dans l’alimentation. Aliments 137-139.

Désert Margins Program. (2004). Les savoirs traditionnels de préservation des terres et de la diversité biologique dans les sites de recherches du programme d’action sur les zones en marge du désert (DMP). Rapport 07/ CNRST, Ouagadougou, 61 p.

Farnsworth NR, Akerele O, Bingel AS, Soejarto DD, Guo Z. (1985). Medical plants in therapy. World Health Organ 63: 965-981.

Fasola TR, Adeyemo FA, Adeniji JA and Okonko IO. (2011). Antiviral potentials of Enantia chlorantha extracts on yellow fever virus. Nat Sci 9: 99-105.

Ford J. (2013). Red blood cell morphology. J Lab Hematol 35(3): 351-7.

Gill LS. (1992). Ethnomedical uses of plants in Nigeria. Uniben Press Benin Nigeria. pp.143.

Gorge JN. (2000). Platelets. Lancet 355: 1531-9.

Humphrey SI, McKenna DJ. (1997) Herbs and breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Abstracts 17(2): 11-2.

Igwe AC, Onabanjo AO. (1989). Chemotherapeutic eff ects of Annona senegalensis. Trop Med Paras 83: 521-534.

Iwu MM. (1993). Handbook of African Medicinal plantsC.RC Press, LL.C. USA pp. 1-13.

Jaykaran, Bhardwaj P, Kantharia N, Yadav P, Panwar A. (2009). Acute toxicity study of an aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa Linn. bark in albino mice. The Internet Journal of Toxicology 6(1).

Kang WS, Chung KH, Lee JY, Park JB, Zhang YH, Yoo HS and Yun YP (2001). Antiplatelet activity of green tea catechins is mediated by inhibition of cytoplasmic calcium increase. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 38: 875-884.

Khandelwal KR. (2005). Practical Pharmacognosy: Techniques and Experiments, 13th ed., p. 149-156, Nirali Prakashan, Pune.

Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. (1998). Pharmacognosy, 23rd Ed., pp. 106-114, Nirali Prakashan, Pune.

Lorke D. (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol 53: 275-287.

Moody JO, Ogundipe OD, Akang EU, Agbedana EO. (2007). Toxicological studies on the purifi ed protoberberine alkaloidal fraction of Enantia chlorantha Oliv (Annonaceae). Afr J Med Med Sci 36(4): 317-23.

Odugbemi TO, Odunayo R. Akinsulire I, Aibinu E and Fabeku O. (2007). Medicinal Plants Useful For Malaria Therapy In Okeigbo, Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria. Afr J Trad CAM 4(2): 191-198.

OECD (2001) OECD guideline for the testing of Chemicals, Acute Oral Toxicity- Acute Toxic Class Method [Guideline 423 adopted 17th December 2001].

Salawu OA, Chindo BA, Tijani AY, Obidike IC, Salawu TA and Akingbasote AJ. (2009). Acute and sub-acute toxicological evaluation of the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga in rats. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 3(12): 621-626.

Sofowora, A. (1993): Medicinal plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd edition. Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria. pp. 134-156.

Tan PV, Boda M, Enow-Orock GE, Etoa F and Bitolog P. (2007). Acute and subacute toxicity profi le of the aqueous stem bark Extract of Enantia chlorantha Oliver (Annonaceae) in Laboratory animals. Pharmacologyonline 1: 304-313.

Wonder KM, George KA and Gyasi EB. (2011). Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Studies of the Ethanolic Extract of the Aerial Parts of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae) in Rodents. West Afr J Pharm 22(1): 27-35.

Zorriehzahra MJ, Hassan MD, Gholizadeh M and Saidi AA. (2010). Study of some hematological and biochemical parameters of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in western part of Mazandaran province, Iran. Iran J Fish Sci 9(1): 185-198.

Interdisciplinary Toxicology

The Journal of Institute of Experimental Pharmacology of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 2.36

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.580
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.134

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 261 261 32
PDF Downloads 105 105 13