Sensitivity of some nitrogen fixers and the target pest Fusarium oxysporum to fungicide thiram

Awad Osman 1 , Ashraf Sherif 1 , Adil Elhussein 2 , and Afrah Mohamed 2
  • 1 Biofertilization Department, Environment and Natural Resource Research Institute, National Center for Research, Sudan
  • 2 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Sensitivity of some nitrogen fixers and the target pest Fusarium oxysporum to fungicide thiram

This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of the fungicide thiram (TMTD) against five nitrogen fixers and the thiram target pest Fusarium oxysporum under laboratory conditions. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Falvobacterium showed the highest values of LD50 and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide followed by Fusarium oxysporum, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for these microorganisms were in 2-5 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with LD50 value for Fusarium oxysporum. Thiram was most toxic to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium. The slope of the curve for Azomonas, Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium is more steep than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. Thiram was more selective to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum, Rhizobium meliloti and Azomonas. The lowest selectivity index of the fungicide was recorded for Falvobacterium followed by Fusarium oxysporum. The highest safety coefficient of the fungicide was assigned for Flavobacterium, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca showed the lowest value.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Daoud AS, Qasim NA, Al-Mallah NM. (1990). Comparison study on the effect of some plant extracts and pesticides on some phytopathogenic fungi. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture 22(4): 227-235.

  • Diatloff A. (1970). The effects of some pesticides on root nodule bacteria and subsequent nodulation. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb 10: 562-567.

  • Fisher DJ. (1976). Effects of some fungicides on Rhizobium trifolii and its symbiotic relationships with white clover. Pest. Sci 7: 10-18.

  • Finney DJ. (1971). Probit Analysis (3rd edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  • Fravel, DR, Deahl, KL, Stommel, JR. (2005). Compatibility of the biocontrol fungus Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 with selected fungicides. Biological Control 34: 165-169.

  • Harrington GE. (1941). Thiuram sulfide for turf diseases. Science 93: 311.

  • Harrison KA. (1961). The control of late blight and gray mold in tomato in Nova Scotia. Can. Plant DIS 41: 3.

  • Hildebrand A, McKeen WE, Koch LW. (1949). Row treatment of soil with tetramethyl thiuramdisulphide for control of black root of sugar beet seedlings. Can. J. Res 27C: 23.

  • Hildreth AC, Brown GB. (1955). Repellents to protect trees and shrubs from damage by rabbits. U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull 1134: 31.

  • Hofer AW. (1958). Selective action of fungicides on Rhizobium. Soil Sci 86: 282-286.

  • Horsfall JG. (1956). The Principles of fungicidal actions. Chronica Botanica Co., Waltman, MA, USA: 279.

  • Kalinin VA, Bykov KV, Osman AG. (2002). Effects of Azoxystrobin on Soil Microorganisms under Laboratory Conditions. The British Crop Protection Council BCPC Conference - Pests & Diseases 4C-4: 279-284.

  • Kruglov UV. (1991). Soil microflora and pesticides. Agroprom 128 [In Russian].

  • Lennox LB, Alexander M. (1981). Fungicide enhancement of nitrogen fixation and colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris by Rhizobium phaseoli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 41(2): 404-411.

  • Mckeen CD. (1950). Preliminary studies on a Pythium root rot of Spanish onion seedlings. Sci. Agric 30: 123-131.

  • Montegomery HBS, Moore MH, Shaw H. (1936). Field trials of the fungicidal and phytocidal properties of certain new chemical preparations. Annu. Rep. East Malling Res. Stn. 198-203.

  • Muskett A, Colhoun J. (1940). Prevention of seedling blight in the flax crop. Nature 146: 32.

  • Newhall AG. (1945). Progress in onion-smut control by seed treatment. Farm Res 118: 18.

  • Odeyemi O, Alexander M. (1977). Use of fungicide-resistant rhizobia for legume inoculation. Soil Biol. Biochem 9: 247-251.

  • Ogunseitan OA, Odeyemi O. (1985). Effects of lindane, captan and malathion on nitrification, Sulphur oxidation, phosphate Solubilization, and respiration in a tropical soil. Env. Pollut 37(1): 343-354.

  • Paliwal A, Gurjar RK, Sharma HN. (2009). Analysis of liver enzymes in albino rat under stress of λ-cyhalothrin and nuvan toxicity. Biology and medicine 1(2): 70-73.

  • Revellin C, Leterme Ph, Catroux G. (1993). Effect of some fungicide seed treatments on the survival of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and on the nodulation and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L) Merr.]. Biol Fertil Soils 16: 211-214.

  • Schroth MN, Hildebrand DC. (1964). Influence of plant exudates on root-infecting fungi. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol 2: 101-132.

  • Shattock RC. (1988). Studies on the inheritance of resistance to metalaxyl in phytophthora infestans. Plant Pathol 37: 4-11.

  • Staphorst JL, Strijdom BW. (1976). Effects on rhizobia of fungicides applied to legume seed. Phytophylactica 8: 47-54.

  • Sun YP. (1950). Toxicity index - an improved method of comparing the relative toxicity of insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol 43(1): 45-53.

  • Taylor CF, Ruppert JA. (1946). A study of vegetable seed protectants. Phytopathology. 36: 726.

  • Tepper EZ, Shilinkova UK, Perverzeva GE. (1993). Manual of microbiology, 4th Edition, Moscow.

  • Zinchenko, VA, Viatkina NE, Afanaseva AU. (1974). Biological methods for determination of the toxicity and residuals of pesticides. Methodological directions for laboratory and practical course "Chemical protection of plants", Department of Chemical Plant Protection, Moscow Agricultural Academy.


Journal + Issues