Natural flavonoids as potential multifunctional agents in prevention of diabetic cataract

Open access

Natural flavonoids as potential multifunctional agents in prevention of diabetic cataract

Cataract is one of the earliest secondary complications of diabetes mellitus. The lens is a closed system with limited capability to repair or regenerate itself. Current evidence supports the view that cataractogenesis is a multifactorial process. Mechanisms related to glucose toxicity, namely oxidative stress, processes of non-enzymatic glycation and enhanced polyol pathway significantly contribute to the development of eye lens opacity under conditions of diabetes. There is an urgent need for inexpensive, non-surgical approaches to the treatment of cataract. Recently, considerable attention has been devoted to the search for phytochemical therapeutics. Several pharmacological actions of natural flavonoids may operate in the prevention of cataract since flavonoids are capable of affecting multiple mechanisms or etiological factors responsible for the development of diabetic cataract. In the present paper, natural flavonoids are reviewed as potential agents that could reduce the risk of cataract formation via affecting multiple pathways pertinent to eye lens opacification. In addition, the bioavailability of flavonoids for the lens is considered.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Alexiou P Pegklidou K Chatzopoulou M Nicolaou I Demopoulos VJ. (2009). Aldose reductase enzyme and its implication to major health problems of the 21(st) century. Curr Med Chem 16: 734-752.

  • Amić D Davidović-Amić D Beslo D Rastija V Lucić B Trinajstić N. (2007). SAR and QSAR of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Curr Med Chem 14: 827-845.

  • Arts IC Sesink AL Faassen-Peters M Hollman PC. (2004). The type of sugar moiety is a major determinant of the small intestinal uptake and subsequent biliary excretion of dietary quercetin glycosides. Br J Nutr 91: 841-847.

  • Baynes JW. (1991). Role of oxidative stress in development of complications in diabetes. Diabetes 40: 405-12. Review.

  • Baynes JW Thorpe SR. (1999). Role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications: a new perspective on an old paradigm. Diabetes 48: 1-9. Review.

  • Beaulieu LP Harris CS Saleem A Cuerrier A Haddad PS Martineau LC Bennett SA Arnason JT. (2010). Inhibitory effect of the Cree traditional medicine wiishichimanaanh (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) on advanced glycation end-product formation: identification of active principles. Phytother Res 24: 741-747.

  • Beyer-Mears A Farnsworth NP. (1979). Diminished sugar cataractogenesis by quercetin. Exp Eye Res 28: 709-716.

  • Bhimanagouda S Patil GK Jayaprakasha KN Chidambara Murthy Amit Vikram. (2009). Bioactive Compounds: Historical Perspectives Opportunities and Challenges. J Agric Food Chem 5: 8142-8160.

  • Bischoff SC. (2008). Quercetin: potentials in the prevention and therapy of disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 11: 733-740.

  • Bockelbrink A Roll S Ruether K Rasch A Greiner W Willich SN. (2008). Cataract surgery and the development or progression of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review. Surv Ophthalmol 53: 359-367.

  • Boots AW Haenen GRMM Bast A. (2008). Health effects of quercetin: From antioxidant to nutraceutical. Eur J Pharm 585: 325-337.

  • Bors W Heller W Michel C Saran M. (1990). Flavonoids as antioxidants. Determination of radical-scavanging efficiences. In Methods in Enzymology (Packer L Glazer AN Eds.; Academic Press: San Diego CA) vol. 186 pp. 343-355.

  • Bors W Michel C. (2002). Chemistry of the antioxidant. Effect of polyphenols. Ann NY Acad Sci 957: 57-69.

  • Bravo L. (1998). Polyphenols: chemistry dietary sources metabolism and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 56: 317-333.

  • Brian G Taylor H. (2001). Cataract blindness - challenges for the 21st century. Bulletin of World Health Organization 79: 249-256.

  • Bron AJ Brown NA Harding JJ Ganea E. (1998). The lens and cataract in diabetes. Int Ophthalmol Clin 38: 37-67.

  • Bron AJ Vrensen GF Koretz J Maraini G Harding JJ. (2000). The ageing lens. Ophthalmologica 214: 86-104. Review.

  • Brownlee M. (2000). Negative consequences of glycation. Metabolism 49(2 Suppl 1): 9-13.

  • Brownlee M. (2001). Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications. Nature 414: 813-820.

  • Brownlee M. (2005). The pathobiology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanism. Diabetes 54: 1615-1625.

  • Butkovic V Klasinc L Bors W. (2004). Kinetic study of flavonoid reactions with stable radicals. J Agric Food Chem 52: 2816-2820.

  • Cao G Sofic E Prior RL. (1997). Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure-activity relationships. Free Rad Biol Med 22: 749-760.

  • Carbone V Zhao HT Chung R Endo S Hara A El-Kabbani O. (2009). Correlation of binding constants and molecular modelling of inhibitors in the active sites of aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase. Bioorg Med Chem 17: 1244-1250.

  • Cervantes-Laurean D Schramm DD Jacobson EL Halaweish I Bruckner GG Boissonneault GA. (2006). Inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation on collagen by rutin and its metabolites. J Nutr Biochem 17: 531-540.

  • Chethan S Dharmesh SM Malleshi NG. (2008). Inhibition of aldose reductase from cataracted eye lenses by finger millet (Eleusine coracana) polyphenols. Bioorg Med Chem 16: 10085-10090.

  • Clifford MN. (2004). Diet-derived phenols in plasma and tissues andtheir implications for health. Planta Med 70: 1103-14. Review.

  • Costantino L Rastelli G Gamberini MC Vinson JA Bose P Iannone A Staffieri M Antolini L Del Corso A Mura U Albasini A. (1999). 1-Benzopyran-4-one antioxidants and aldose reductase inhibitors. J Med Chem 42: 1881-1893.

  • Costantino L Rastelli G Gamberini MC Barlocco D. (2000). Pharmacological approaches to the treatment of diabetic complications. Expert Opin Ther Patents 10: 1245-1262.

  • Cornish KM Williamson G Sanderson J. (2002). Quercetin metabolism in the lens: role in inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced cataract. Free Rad Biol Med 33: 63-70.

  • Coudert P Albuisson E Boire JY Duroux E Bastide P Couquelet J. (1994). Synthesis of pyridazine acetic acid derivatives possessing aldose reductase inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties. Eur J Med Chem 29: 471-477.

  • Crozier A Del Rio D Clifford MN. (2010). Bioavailability of dietary flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Mol Aspects Med 31: 446-467.

  • Crozier A Jaganath IB Clifford MN. (2009). Dietary phenolics: chemistry bioavailability and effects on health. Nat Prod Rep 26: 1001-1043. Review.

  • Day AJ Canada FJ Diaz JC Kroon PA McLauchlan R Faulds CB Plumb GW Morgan MR Williamson G. (2000). Dietary flavonoid and isoflavone glycosides are hydrolysed by the lactase site of lactase phlorizin hydrolase. FEBS Lett 468: 166-170.

  • Day AJ Dupont MS Ridley S et al. (1998). Deglycosylation of flavonoid and isoflavonoid glycosides by human small intestine and liver beta-glucosidase activity. FEBS Lett 436: 71-75.

  • Del Corso A Cappiello M Mura U. (2008). From a dull enzyme to something else: facts and perspectives regarding aldose reductase. Curr Med Chem 15: 1452-1461.

  • Demopoulos VJ Zaher N Zika C Anagnostou C Mamadou E Alexiou P Nicolaou I. (2005). Compounds that combine aldose reductase inhibitory activity and ability to prevent the glycation (glucation and/or fructation) of proteins as putative pharmacotherapeutic agents. Drug Design Reviews-Online 2: 293-304.

  • Durukan AH Evereklioglu C Hurmeric V Kerimoglu H Erdurman C Bayraktar MZ Mumcuoglu T. (2006). Ingestion of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract to prevent selenite-induced oxidative stress in experimental cataract. J Cataract Refract Surg 32: 1041-1045.

  • El-Kabbani O Ruiz F Darmanin C Chung RP. (2004). Aldose reductase structures: implications for mechanism and inhibition. Cell Mol Life Sci 61: 750-762.

  • El-Kabbani O Podjarny A. (2007). Selectivity determinants of the aldose and aldehyde reductase inhibitor-binding sites. Cell Mol Life Sci 64: 1970-1978. Review.

  • Ertekin MV Koçer I Karslıoglu I Taysi S Gepdiremen A Sezen O Balcı E Bakan N. (2004). Effects of oral ginkgo biloba supplementation on cataract formation and oxidative stress occurring in lenses of rats exposed to total cranium radiotherapy. Jpn J Ophthalmol 48: 499-502.

  • Fossen T Pedersen AT Andersen M. (1998). Flavonoids from red onion (Allium cepa). Phytochemistry 47: 281-285.

  • Gayathri Devi V Rooban BN Sasikala V Sahasranamam V Abraham A. (2010). Isorhamnetin-3-glucoside alleviates oxidative stress and opacification in selenite cataract in vitro. Toxicol in Vitro 24: 1662-1669.

  • Gee JM DuPont SM Day AJ Plumb GW Williamson G Johnson IT. (2000). Intestinal transport of quercetin glycosides in rats involves both deglycosylation and interaction with the hexose transport pathway. J Nutr 130: 2765-2771.

  • Giacco F Brownlee M. (2010). Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circ Res 107: 1058-1070.

  • Grotte D Mattox V Brubaker R. (1985). Fluorescent physiological and pharmacokinetic properties of fluorescein. Exp Eye Res 40: 23-33.

  • Gupta SK Halder N Srivastava S Trivedi D Joshi S Varma SD. (2002). Green tea (Camellia sinensis) protects against selenite-induced oxidative stress in experimental cataractogenesis. Ophthalmic Res 34: 258-263.

  • Gupta SK Selvan VK Agrawal SS Saxena R. (2009). Advances in pharmacological strategies for the prevention of cataract development. Indian J Ophthalmol 57: 175-183.

  • Hanasaki Y Ogawa S Fukui S. (1994). The correlation between active oxygens scavenging and antioxidative effects of flavonoids. Free Rad Biol Med 16: 845-850.

  • Harding JJ. (2002). Viewing molecular mechanisms of ageing through a lens. Ageing Res Rev 1: 465-479.

  • Head KA. (2001). Natural therapies for ocular disorders part two: cataracts and glaucoma. Altern Med Rev 6: 141-166. Review.

  • Heim KE Tagliaferro TR Bobilya DJ. (2002). Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry metabolism and structure-activity relationships. J Nutr Biochem 13: 572-584.

  • Hightower KR. (1995). The role of the lens epithelium in development of UV cataract. Curr Eye Res 14: 71-78.

  • Hollman PCH Bijsman MNCP van Gameren Y et al. (1999). The sugar moiety is a major determinant of the absorption of dietary flavonoid glycosides in man. Free Radic Res 31: 569-573.

  • Huang R Shi F Lei T Song Y Hughes CL Liu G. (2007). Effect of the isoflavone genistein against galactose-induced cataracts in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 232: 118-125.

  • Ioku K Pongpiriyadacha Y Konishi Y et al. (1998). Betaglucosidase activity in the rat small intestine toward quercetinmonoglucosides. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62: 1428-1431.

  • Isai M Sakthivel M Ramesh E Thomas PA Geraldine P. (2009). Prevention of selenite-induced cataractogenesis by rutin in Wistar rats. Mol Vis 15: 2570-2577.

  • Jaganath IB Mullen W Edwards CA Crozier A. (2006). The relative contribution of the small and large intestine to the absorption and metabolism of rutin in man. Free Rad Res 40: 1035-1046.

  • Javadzadeh A Ghorbanihaghjo A Bonyadi S Rashidi MR Mesgari M Rashtchizadeh N Argani H. (2009). Preventive effect of onion juice on selenite-induced experimental cataract. Indian J Ophthalmol 57: 185-189.

  • Jia Z Song Z Zhao Y Wang X Liu P. (2011). Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects human lens epithelial cells from oxidative stress via reducing NF-κB and MAPK protein expression. Mol Vis 17: 210-217.

  • Jung SH Lee YS Lee S Lim SS Kim YS Shin KH. (2002). Isoflavonoids from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis and their effects on aldose reductase and sorbitol accumulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat tissues. Arch Pharm Res 25: 306-312.

  • Jung HA Yoon NY Kang SS Kim YS Choi JS. (2008). Inhibitory activities of prenylated flavonoids from Sophora flavescens against aldose reductase and generation of advanced glycation endproducts. J Pharm Pharmacol 60: 1227-1236.

  • Jung HA Jung YJ Yoon NY Jeong da M Bae HJ Kim DW Na DH Choi JS. (2008). Inhibitory effects of Nelumbo nucifera leaves on rat lens aldose reductase advanced glycation endproducts formation and oxidative stress. Food Chem Toxicol 46: 3818-3826.

  • Jung HA Kim YS Choi JS. (2009). Quantitative HPLC analysis of two key flavonoids and inhibitory activities against aldose reductase from different parts of the Korean thistle Cirsium maackii. Food Chem Toxicol 47: 2790-2797.

  • Jung HA Islam MD Kwon YS Jin SE Son YK Park JJ Sohn HS Choi JS. (2011). Extraction and identification of three major aldose reductase inhibitors from Artemisia montana. Food Chem Toxicol 49: 376-384.

  • Kalt W Hanneken A Milbury P Tremblay F. (2010). Recent research on polyphenolics in vision and eye health. J Agric Food Chem 58: 4001-4007.

  • Kamei A. (1998). Partial properties of four glycosidases in normal human lens and variations in their enzyme activities during aging and with the advance of lens coloration. Biol Pharm Bull 21: 982-986.

  • Kawanishi K Ueda H Moriyasu M. (2003). Aldose reductase inhibitors from the nature. Curr Med Chem 10: 1353.

  • Kay CD. (2010). The future of flavonoid research. Br J Nutr 104(Suppl 3): S91-S95.

  • Kilic F Bhardwaj R Trevithick JR. (1996). Modelling cortical cataractogenesis. XVIII. In vitro diabetic cataract reduction by venoruton. A flavonoid which prevents lens opacification. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 74: 372-378.

  • Kroon PA Clifford MN Crozier A Day AJ Donovan JL Manach C Williamson G. (2004). How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro? Am J Clin Nutr 80: 15-21.

  • Kyselova Z Stefek M Bauer V. (2004). Pharmacological prevention of diabetic cataract. J Diabetes Complications 18: 129-140. Review.

  • Kyselova Z. (2010). Different experimental approaches in modelling cataractogenesis: An overview of selenite-induced nuclear cataract in rats. Interdisc Toxicol 3: 3-14.

  • La Motta C Sartini S Mugnaini L Simorini F Taliani S Salerno S Marini AM Da Settimo F Lavecchia A Novellino E Cantore M Failli P Ciuffi M. (2007). Pyrido[12-a]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives as a novel class of selective aldose reductase inhibitors exhibiting antioxidant activity. J Med Chem 50: 4917-4927.

  • Lee SM Ko IG Kim SE Kim DH Kang BN. (2010). Protective effect of catechin on apoptosis of the lens epithelium in rats with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced cataracts. Korean J Ophthalmol 24: 101-107.

  • Lee YS Kim SH Jung SH Kim JK Pan CH Lim SS. (2010). Aldose reductase inhibitory compounds from Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Biol Pharm Bull 33: 917-921.

  • Lija Y Biju PG Reeni A Cibin TR Sahasranamam V Abraham A. (2006). Modulation of selenite cataract by the flavonoid fraction of emilia sonchifolia in experimental animal models. Phytother Res 20: 1091-1095.

  • Lim SS Jung SH Ji J Shin KH Keum SR. (2001). Synthesis of flavonoids and their effects on aldose reductase and sorbitol accumulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat tissues. J Pharm Pharmacol 53: 653-668.

  • Lu M-P Wang R Song X Chibbar R Wang X Wu L Q Meng QH. (2008). Dietary soy isoflavones increase insulin secretion and prevent the development of diabetic cataracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Res 28: 464-471.

  • Majumdar S Srirangam R. (2010). Potential of the bioflavonoids in the prevention/treatment of ocular disorders. J Pharm Pharmacol 62: 951-965.

  • Manach C Williamson G Morand C Scalbert A Remesy C. (2005). Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81: 2230S-2242S.

  • Matsuda H Morikawa T Toguchida I Yoshikawa M. (2002). Structural requirements of flavonoids and related compounds for aldose reductase inhibitory activity. Chem Pharm Bull 50: 788-795.

  • Matsuda H Wang T Managi H Yoshikawa M. (2003). Structural requirements of flavonoids for inhibition of protein glycation and radical scavenging activities. Bioorg Med Chem 11: 5317-5323.

  • Meyer CH Sekundo W. (2005). Nutritional supplementation to prevent cataract formation. Dev Ophthalmol 38: 103-119.

  • Miean KH Mohamed S. (2001). Flavonoid (myricetin quercetin kaempferol luteolin and apigenin) content of edible tropical plants. J Agr Food Chem 49: 3106-1312.

  • Miyamoto S. (2002). Recent advances in aldose reductase inhibitors: potential agents for the treatment of diabetic complications. Expert Opin. Ther Patents 12: 621-631.

  • Mohan M Gupta SK Agnihotri S Joshi S Uppal RK. (1988). Anticataract action of topical quercetin and myricetin in galactosemic rats. Med Sci Res 6: 685-686.

  • Monnier VM Cerami A. (1981). Nonenzymatic browning in vivo: possible process for aging of long-lived proteins. Science 211: 491-493.

  • Monnier VM Sell DR Genuth S. (2005). Glycation products as markers and predictors of the progression of diabetic complications. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1043: 567-581.

  • Morand C Crespy V Manach C Besson C Demigne C Remesy C. (1998). Plasma metabolites of quercetin and their antioxidant properties. Am J Physiol 275: R212-R219.

  • Morimitsu Y Yoshida K Esaki S Hirota A. (1995). Protein glycation inhibitors from thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 59: 2018-2021.

  • Mullen W Edwards CA Crozier A. (2006). Absorption excretion and metabolic profiling of methyl- glucuronyl- glucosyl and sulpho-conjugates of quercetin in human plasma and urine after ingestion of onions. Br J Nutr 96: 107-116.

  • Nagao A Seki M Kobayashi H. (1999). Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by flavonoids. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 63: 1787-1790.

  • Nagaraj RH Linetsky M Stitt AW. (2010). The pathogenic role of Maillard reaction in the aging eye. Amino Acids Oct 21. [Epub ahead of print]

  • Nagasawa T Tabata N Ito Y Nishizawa N Aiba Y Kitts DD. (2003). Inhibition of glycation reaction in tissue protein incubations by water soluble rutin derivative. Mol Cell Biochem 249: 3-10.

  • Nagasawa T Tabata N Ito Y Aiba Y Nishizawa N Kitts DD. (2003). Dietary G-rutin suppresses glycation in tissue proteins of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem 252: 141-147.

  • Nakai N Fujii Y Kobashi K Nomura K. (1985). Aldose reductase inhibitors: flavonoids alkaloids acetophenones benzophenones and pirohydantoins of chroman. Arch Biochem Biophys 239: 491-496.

  • Nakano M Orimo N Katagiri N Tsubata M Takahashi J Van Chuyen N. (2008). Inhibitory effect of astraxanthin combined with Flavangenol on oxidative stress biomarkers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 78: 175-182.

  • Nijveldt RJ van Nood E van Hoorn DEC Boelens PG van Norren K van Leeuwen PAM. (2001). Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am J Clin Nutr 74: 418.

  • Obrosova IG Chung SS Kador PF. (2010). Diabetic cataracts: mechanisms and management. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 26: 172-180.

  • Okuda J Miwa I Inagaki K Horie T Nakayama M. (1982). Inhibition of aldose reductases from rat and bovine lenses by flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol 31: 3807-3822.

  • Olson RJ Mamalis N Werner L Apple DJ. (2003). Cataract treatment in the beginning of the 21st century. Am J Ophth 136: 146-154.

  • Orhan H Marol S Hepsen IF Sahin G. (1999). Effects of some probable antioxidants on selenite-induced cataract formation and oxidative stress-related parameters in rats. Toxicology 139: 219-232.

  • Pashikanti S de Alba DR Boissonneault GA Cervantes-Laurean D. (2010). Rutin metabolites: novel inhibitors of nonoxidative advanced glycation end products. Free Radic Biol Med 48: 656-663.

  • Pietta PG. (2000). Flavonoids as antioxidants. J Nat Prod 63: 1035.

  • Pollreisz A Schmidt-Erfurth U. (2010). Diabetic cataract - pathogenesis epidemiology and treatment. J Ophthalmol 2010: 608751.

  • Ramana BV Raju TN Kumar VV Reddy PUM. (2007). Defensive role of quercetin against imbalances of calcium sodium and potassium in galactosemic cataract. Biol Trace Elem Res 119: 35-41.

  • Rice-Evans C. (2001). Flavonoid antioxidants. Curr Med Chem 8: 797.

  • Rooban BN Lija Y Biju PG Sasikala V Sahasranamam V Abrahama A. (2009). Vitex negundo attenuates calpain activation and cataractogenesis in selenite models. Exp Eye Res 88: 575-582.

  • Rooban BN Sasikala V Sahasranamam V Abraham A. (2011). Amelioration of selenite toxicity and cataractogenesis in cultured rat lenses by Vitex negundo. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print]

  • Sanderson J McLauchlan WR Williamson G. (1999). Quercetin inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation of the rat lens. Free Rad Biol Med 26: 639-645.

  • Scalbert A Williamson G. (2000). Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols. J Nutr 130(8S Suppl): 2073S-2085S.

  • Scalbert A Morand C Manach C Rémésy C. (2002). Absorption and metabolism of polyphenols in the gut and impact on health. Biomed. Pharmacother 56: 276-282.

  • Shamsi FA Sharkey E Creighton D Nagaraj RH. (2000). Maillard reactions in lens proteins: methylglyoxal-mediated modifications in the rat lens. Exp Eye Res 70: 369-380.

  • Sharma KK Santhoshkumar P. (2009). Lens aging: effects of crystallins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1790: 1095-1108. Review.

  • Shearer TR Ma H Fukiage C Azuma M. (1997). Selenite nuclear cataract: review of the model. Mol Vis 3: 8-17.

  • Scheller S Wilczok T Imielski S Krol W Gabrys J Shani J. (1990). Free radical scavenging by ethanol extract of propolis. Int J Radiat Biol 57: 461-465.

  • Sperker B Backman JT Kroemer HK. (1997). The role of β-glucuronidase in drug disposition and drug targeting in humans. Clin Pharmacokinet 33: 18-31.

  • Stefek M Snirc V Djoubissie PO Majekova M Demopoulos V Rackova L Bezakova Z Karasu C Carbone V El-Kabbani O. (2008). Carboxymethylated pyridoindole antioxidants as aldose reductase inhibitors: Synthesis activity partitioning and molecular modeling. Bioorg Med Chem 16: 4908-4920.

  • Stitt AW. (2005). The maillard reaction in eye diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1043: 582-597.

  • Suryanarayana P Kumar PA Saraswat M Petrash JM Reddy GB. (2004). Inhibition of aldose reductase by tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis: implications for the prevention of sugar cataract. Mol Vis 10: 148-154.

  • Suzen S Buyukbingol E. (2003). Recent studies of aldose reductase enzyme inhibition for diabetic complications. Curr Med Chem 10: 1329-1352.

  • Taylor A. (1993). Cataract: relationship between nutrition and oxidation. J Am Coll Nutr 12: 138-146.

  • Taylor HR. (1999). Epidemiology of age-related cataract. Eye 13: 445-448.

  • Thiagarajan G Chandani S Sundari SC Harinarayana Rao S Kulkarni VA Balasubramanian D. (2001). Antioxidant properties of green and black tea and their potential ability to retard the progression of eye lens cataract. Exp Eye Res 73: 393-401.

  • Thiagarajan G Chandani S Harinarayana Rao S Samuni AM Chandrasekaran K Balasubramanian D. (2002). Molecular and cellular assessment of Ginkgo biloba extract as a possible ophthalmic drug. Exp Eye Res 75: 421-430.

  • Thornalley PJ. (2005). Dicarbonyl intermediates in the Maillard reaction. Ann NY Acad Sci 1043: 111-117.

  • Thorpe SR Baynes JW. (1996). Role of the Maillard reaction in diabetes mellitus and diseases of aging. Drugs Aging 9: 69-77.

  • Turk Z. (2010). Glycotoxines carbonyl stress and relevance to diabetes and its complications. Physiol Res 59: 147-156.

  • Urios P Grigorova-Borsos AM Sternberg M. (2007). Flavonoids inhibit the formation of the cross-linking AGE pentosidine in collagen incubated with glucose according to their structure. Eur J Nutr 46: 139-146.

  • Varma SD Kinoshita JH. (1976). Inhibition of lens aldose reductase by flavonoids - their possible role in the prevention of diabetic cataracts. Biochem Pharm 25: 2505-2513.

  • Varma SD Mikuni I Kinoshita JH. (1975). Flavonoids as inhibitors of lens aldose reductase. Science 188: 1215-1216.

  • Varma SD Mizuno A Kinoshita JH. (1977). Diabetic Cataracts and Flavonoids. Science 195: 205-206.

  • Vibin M Siva Priya SG N Rooban B Sasikala V Sahasranamam V Abraham A. (2010). Broccoli regulates protein alterations and cataractogenesis in selenite models. Curr Eye Res 35: 99-107.

  • Walle T. (2004). Absorption and metabolism of flavonoids. Free Radic Biol Med 36: 829-837. Review.

  • Weinreb RN Jeng S Miller AL. (1991). Lysosomal enzyme activity in human aqueous humor. Clin Chim Acta 199: 1-6.

  • Williamson G Manach C. (2005). Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81(1 Suppl): 243S-255S. Review.

  • Williams RJ Spencer JP Rice-Evans C. (2004). Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules? Free Radic Biol Med 36: 838-849.

  • Wirasathien L Pengsuparp T Suttisri R Ueda H Moriyasu M Kawanishi K. (2007). Inhibitors of aldose reductase and advanced glycation end-products formation from the leaves of Stelechocarpus cauliflorus R.E. Fr. Phytomedicine 14: 546-550.

  • Wu CH Yen GC. (2005). Inhibitory effect of naturally occurring flavonoids on the formation of advanced glycation endproducts. J Agric Food Chem 53: 3167-3173.

  • Yao K Zhang L Zhang Y Ye P Zhu N. (2008). The flavonoid fisetin inhibits UV radiation-induced oxidative stress and the activation of NF-kappaB and MAPK signaling in human lens epithelial cells. Mol Vis 14: 1865-1871.

  • Yabe-Nishimura C. (1998). Aldose reductase in glucose toxicity: a potential target for the prevention of diabetic complications. Pharmacol Rev 50: 21-33.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 1.78

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.274
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.671

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 504 290 24
PDF Downloads 184 124 11