Toxins produced in cyanobacterial water blooms - toxicity and risks

Open access

Toxins produced in cyanobacterial water blooms - toxicity and risks

Cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters represent a major ecological and human health problem worldwide. This paper briefly summarizes information on major cyanobacterial toxins (hepatotoxins, neurotoxins etc.) with special attention to microcystins - cyclic heptapeptides with high acute and chronic toxicities. Besides discussion of human health risks, microcystin ecotoxicology and consequent ecological risks are also highlighted. Although significant research attention has been paid to microcystins, cyanobacteria produce a wide range of currently unknown toxins, which will require research attention. Further research should also address possible additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects among different classes of cyanobacterial metabolites, as well as interactions with other toxic stressors such as metals or persistent organic pollutants.

Adamovský O, Kopp, R., Hilscherová K, Babica, P., Palíková M, Pašková V, Navrátil, S., and Bláha, L. (2007) Microcystin kinetics (bioaccumulation, elimination) and biochemical responses in common carp and silver carp exposed to toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Environ Toxicol & Chem 26: 2687-2693.

Babica P, Bláha L, and Maršálek B. (2006) Exploring the natural role of microcystins - a review of effects on photoautotrophic organisms. J Phycol 42: 9-20.

Babica P, Hilscherová K, Bártová K, Bláha L, and Maršálek B. (2007) Effects of dissolved microcystins on growth of planktonic photoautotrophs. Phycologia 46: 137-142.

Bartram J, Carmichael WW, Chorus I, Jones G, and Skulberg OM. (1999) Introduction. In: Toxic cyanobacteria in water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. (Chorus I and Bartram J, eds.), pp. 1-14. WHO & E&FN Spon, London

Beardall J, and Raven JA. (2004) The potential effects of global climate change on microalgal photosynthesis, growth and ecology. Phycologia 43: 26-40.

Bláhová L, Babica P, Adamovský O, Kohoutek J, Maršálek B, and Bláha L. (2008) Analyses of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins, cylindrospermopsin) in the reservoirs of the Czech Republic and evaluation of health risks. Environ Chem Lett 6: 223-227.

Bláhová L, Babica P, Maršálková E, Smutná M, Maršálek B, and Bláha L. (2007) Concentrations and seasonal trends of extracellular microcystins in freshwaters of the Czech Republic - results of the national monitoring program. CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water 35: 348-354.

Bláhová L, Oravec M, Maršálek B, Šejnohová L, Šimek Z, and Bláha L. (2009) The first occurrence of the cyanobacterial alkaloid toxin cylindrospermin in the Czech Republic as determined by immunochemical and LC/MS methods. Toxicon 53: 519-524.

Bouaicha N, Maatouk I, Plessis MJ, and Perin F. (2005) Genotoxic potential of microcystin-LR and nodularin in vitro in primary cultured rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rat liver. Environ Toxicol 20: 341-347

Briand J-F, Jacquet S, Bernard C, and Humbert J-F. (2003) Health hazards for terrestrial vertebrates from toxic cyanobacteria in surface water ecosystems. Vet Res 34: 361-377.

Chorus I. (2001) Introduction: Cyanotoxins - research for environmental safety and human health. In: Cyanotoxins - Occurence, Causes, Consequences (Chorus I, ed.), pp. 1-4. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Chorus I. (2005) Editorial and summary. In: Current approaches to cyanotoxin risk assessment, risk management and regulations in different countries (Chorus I, ed.), pp. 1-8. Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Berlin.

Chorus I, and Bartram J. eds. (1999) Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. E&FN Spon, London.

Codd GA, Lindsay J, Young FM, Morrison LF, and Metcalf JS. (2005a) Cyanobacterial Toxins. In: Harmful Cyanobacteria (Huisman J, Matthijs HCP and Visser PM, eds.), pp. 1-23. Springer-Verlag.

Codd GA, Morrison LF & Metcalf JS. (2005b) Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 203: 264-272.

Dawson RM. (1998) The toxicology of microcystins. Toxicon 36: 953-962.

Dietrich D, and Hoeger S. (2005) Guidance values for microcystins in water and cyanobacterial supplement products (blue-green algal supplements): a reasonable or misguided approach? Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 203: 273-289.

Ding W-X, and Ong CN. (2003) Role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial changes in cyanobacteria-induced apoptosis and hepatotoxicity - MiniReview. FEMS Microbiology Letters 220: 1-7.

Duy TN, Lam PKS, Shaw GR, and Connell DW. (2000) Toxicology and risk assessment of freshwater cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) toxins in water. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 163: 113-186.

Edwards C, Beattie KA, Scrimgeour CM, and Codd GA. (1992) Identification of Anatoxin-a in Benthic Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green-Algae) and in Associated Dog Poisonings at Loch Insh, Scotland. Toxicon 30: 1165-1175.

Falconer I. (2006) Cyanobacterial Toxins of Drinking Water Supplies: cylindrospermopsins and microcystins. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Fawell JK, Mitchell RE, Everett DJ, and Hill RE. (1999) The toxicity of cyanobacterial toxins in the mouse: I Microcystin-LR. Human & Experimental Toxicology 18: 162-167.

Fu W-Y, Chen JP, Wang X-M, and Xu LH. (2005) Altered expression of p53, Bcl-2 and Bax induced by microcystin-LR in vivo and in vitro. Toxicon 46: 171-177.

Gehringer MM. (2004) Microcystin-LR and okadaic acid-induced cellular effects: a dualistic response. FEBS Letters 557: 1-8.

Guzman RE, Solter PF, and Runnegar MT. (2003) Inhibition of nuclear protein phosphatase activity in mouse hepatocytes by the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR. Toxicon 41: 773-781.

Humpage AR, and Falconer IR. (1999) Microcystin-LR and liver tumor promotion: Effects on cytokinesis, ploidy, and apoptosis in cultured hepatocytes. Environmental Toxicology 14: 61-75.

Humpage AR, Fenech M, Thomas P, and Falconer IR. (2000) Micronucleus induction and chromosome loss in transformed human white cells indicate clastogenic and aneugenic action of the cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 472: 155-161.

Ikawa M, Sasner JJ, and Haney JF. (1997) Inhibition of Chlorella growth by degradation and related products of linoleic and linolenic acids and the possible significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phytoplankton ecology. Hydrobiologia 356: 143-148.

Mez K, Beattie KA, Codd GA, Hanselmann K, Hauser B, Naegeli H, and Preisig HR. (1997) Identification of a microcystin in benthic cyanobacteria linked to cattle deaths on alpine pastures in Switzerland. European Journal of Phycology 32: 111-117.

Oberemm A, Heinze R, Papendorf O, and Fastner J. (2001) Significance of unidentified toxic compounds and approaches to their identification. In: Cyanotoxins - Occurence, Causes, Consequences (Chorus I, ed.), pp. 286-295. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Rapala J, Robertson A, Negri AP, Berg KA, Tuomi P, Lyra C, Erkomaa K, Lahti K, Hoppu K, and Lepisto L. (2005) First report of saxitoxin in Finnish lakes and possible associated effects on human health. Environmental Toxicology 20: 331-340.

Reinikainen M, Meriluoto JAO, Spoof L, and Harada K. (2001) The toxicities of a polyunsaturated fatty acid and a microcystin to Daphnia magna. Environmental Toxicology 16: 444-448.

Sivonen K, and Jones G. (1999) Cyanobacterial toxins. In: Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A Guide to Public Health Significance, Monitoring and Management (Chorus I and Bartram J, eds.), pp. 41-111. E&FN Spon, London.

Watson SB. (2003) Cyanobacterial and eukaryotic algal odour compounds: signals or by-products? A review of their biological activity. Phycologia 42: 332-350.

Welker M, and von Dohren H. (2006). Cyanobacterial peptides - Nature's own combinatorial biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30: 530-563.

WHO (1998a) Guidelines for drinking water quality. World Health Organisation, Geneva.

WHO (1998b) Chapter 7: Freshwater algae and cyanobacteria. In: Guidelines for Safe Recreational-water Environments, Volume 1: Coastal and Freshwaters, pp. 125-209. World Health Organization.

Wiegand C, and Pflugmacher S. (2005) Ecotoxicological effects of selected cyanobacterial secondary metabolites a short review. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 203: 201-218.

Xie LQ, Xie P, Guo LG, Li L, Miyabara Y, and Park HD. (2005) Organ distribution and bioaccumulation of microcystins in freshwater fish at different trophic levels from the eutrophic Lake Chaohu, China. Environmental Toxicology 20: 293-300.

Yoshida T, Makita Y, Nagata S, Tsutsumi T, Yoshida F, Sekijima M, Tamura SI, and Ueno Y. (1997) Acute oral toxicity of microcystin-LR, a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, in mice. Natural Toxins 5: 91-95.

Yu SZ. (1995) Primary Prevention of Hepatocellular-Carcinoma. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10: 674-682.

Zhou L, Yu H, and Chen K. (2002) Relationship between microcystin in drinking water and colorectal cancer. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 15: 166-171.

Zurawell RW, Chen HR, Burke JM, and Prepas EE. (2005) Hepatotoxic cyanobacteria: A review of the biological importance of microcystins in freshwater environments. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part B-Critical Reviews 8: 1-37.

Interdisciplinary Toxicology

The Journal of Institute of Experimental Pharmacology of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 2.36

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.580
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.134

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 306 306 74
PDF Downloads 87 87 24