An in vivo study was carried out on the freshwater fish Barbonymus gonionotus to evaluate the genotoxic effects of the organophosphate quinalphos. The fish were exposed to sub-lethal doses of quinalphos (0%, 10%, 25%, and 50% of LC50) for a period of 30 days. Analysis of biochemical characteristics (protein and lipid contents of different organs), nuclear abnormalities of erythrocytes (NAE) and morphological abnormalities of erythrocytes (MAE) were performed on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at post-treatment intervals of 0 and 30 days. The biochemical results revealed a significant dose-dependent decline in protein and lipid contents and increase in the frequencies of NAE as well as MAE. Our findings also confirmed that the morphological deformations of erythrocytes in addition to NAE on fish erythrocytes in vivo are effective tools in determining the potential genotoxicity of organophosphates.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ahmad I Maria VL Oliveira M Pacheco M Santos MA. (2006). Oxidative stress and genotoxic effects in gill and kidney of Anguilla anguilla L. exposed to chromium with or without pre-exposure to naphthoflavone. Mut Res608: 16–28.
Ateeq B Farah MA Ali MN Ahmed W. (2002). Induction of micronuclei and erythrocyte alterations in the catfish Clarias batrachus by 24-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and butachlor. Mut Res518: 135–144.
Ayllon F Garcia-Vazquez E. (2000). Induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus and mollie Poecilia latipinna: an assessment of the fish micronucleus test. Mut Res 467: 177–186.
Barsiene JV Dedonyt E Rybakovas A Andreikenaite L Andersen OK. (2006). Investigation of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in peripheral blood and kidney of marine fish treated with crude oil. Aquat Toxicol78: S99–S104.
Behrends A Hardeland R Ness H Grube S Poeggeler B Haldar C. (2004). Photocatalytic actions of the pesticide metabolite 2-hydroxyquinoxaline: destruction of antioxidant vitamins and biogenic amines – implications of organic redox cycling. Redox Rep9: 279–288.
Behrends A Riediger S Grube S Poeggeler B Haldar C Hardeland R. (2007). Photocatalytic mechanisms of indoleamine destruction by the quinalphos metabolite 2-hydroxyquinoxaline: a study on melatonin and its precursors serotonin and N-acetylserotonin. J Environ Sci Health B 42: 599–606.
Bogard JR Thilsted SH Marks GC Wahab MA Hossain MAR Jakobsen J Stan-goulis J. (2015). Nutrient composition of important fish species in Bangladesh and potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes. J Food Comp Ana42: 120–133.
Bolognesi C Hayashi M. (2011). Micronucleus assay in aquatic animals. Muta-genesis 26: 205–213.
Cadet J Douki T Gasparutto D Ravanat JL. (2003). Oxidative damage to DNA: formation measurement and biochemical features. Mut Res531: 5–23.
Carrasco KR Tilbury KL Meyers MS. (1990). Assessment of the piscine micro-nucleus test as an in situ biological indicator of chemical contaminant effects. Can J Fish Aquat Sci47: 2123–2136.
Chauhan LKS Chandra S Saxena PN Gupta SK. (2015). In vivo cytogenetic effects of a commercially formulated mixture of cypermethrin and quinalphos in mice. Mut Res587: 120–125.
Dwivedi PD Das M Khanna SK. (1998). Role of cytochrome P-450 in quinalphos toxicity: effect on hepatic and brain antioxidant enzymes in rats. Food Chem Toxicol36: 437–444.
Ergene S Avas T Celik A Koleli N Kaya F Karahan A. (2007). Monitoring of nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of three fish species from the Goksu Delta (Turkey): genotoxic damage in relation to water pollution. Ecotoxicology16: 385–391.
Fenech M Chang WP Kirsch-Volders HMN Bonassi S Zeiger E. (2003). HUMAN project: detailed description of the scoring criteria for the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay using isolated human lymphocyte cultures. Mut Res534: 65–75.
Finney DJ. (1971). Probit analysis Cambridge University Press London UK (3rd Edn.).
Folch J Lees M Sloane Stanley GH. (1957). A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biochem Chem226(1): 497–509.
Gerhardt P Murray RGE Wood WA Krieg NR. (1994). Methods for general and molecular bacteriology ASM Washington DC 518.
Hemalatha D Amala A Rangasamy B Nataraj B Ramesh M. (2016). Sublethal toxicity of quinalphos on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. Environ Toxicol31(11): 1399–1406.
Hussain R Mahmood F Khan A Javed MT Rehan S Mehdi T. (2012). Cellular and biochemical effects induced by atrazine on blood of male Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica). Pest Biochem Physiol103: 38–42.
Jha AN. (2008). Ecotoxicological applications and significance of the comet assay. Mutagenesis23: 207–221.
Keizer J Giuseppina DA Vitozzi L. (1991). The importance of biotransformation in the toxicity of xenobiotics to fish. I. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of diazinon in guppy (Poecillia reticulate) and zabrafish (Brachydanio rerio). Aquat Toxicol21: 239–254.
Lim S Ahn SY Song IC Chung MH Jang HC. (2009). Chronic exposure to the herbicide atrazine causes mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. PLoS ONE4(4): 51–86.
Mostakim GM Zahangir MM Mishu MM Rahman MK Islam MS. (2015). Alteration of blood parameters and histoarchitecture of liver and kidney of silver barb after chronic exposure to quinalphos. J Toxicol41598: 1–8.
Nannu MTA Mostakim GM Khatun MH Rahman MK Sadiqul MI. (2015). Hematological and histo-architectural damages in the kidney and liver of Nile tilapia on exposure to kinalux. Prog. Agricult26: 173–178.
Padmanabha A Reddy HRV Bhat A Khavi M. (2015). Quinalphos induced oxidative stress biomarkers in liver and kidney of common carp Cyprinus carpio. Nat Environ Pol Tech14(4): 871–876.
Ram PY Digvijay SK Singh A. (2003). Metabolic changes in freshwater fish Channa punctatus due to stem-barck extract of Crtontiglium. Pak J Biol Sci6: 1223–1228.
Ramya V Asifa KP Chitra KC. (2015). Quinalphos-induced alteration on the antioxidant defense system in subcellular fraction of gill in freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters 1852). Int J Adv Res Biol Sci2(12): 234–240.
Reinecke SA Reinecke AJ. (2004). The comet assay as biomarker of heavy metal genotoxicity in earth worms. Arch Env Cont Toxicol46: 208–215.
Riediger S Behrends A Croll B Vega-Naredo I Hanig N Poeggeler B Boker J Grube S Gipp J Coto-Montes A Haldar C Hardeland R. (2007). Toxicity of the quinalphos metabolite 2-hydroxyquinoxaline: Growth inhibition induction of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in test organisms. Environ Toxicol22: 33–43.
Rupa DS Reddy PP Reddy OS. (1991). Cytogenetic effects of quinalphos in mice. Food Chem Toxicol29: 115–117.
Sadiqul MI Ferdous Z Nannu MTA Mostakim GM Rahman MK. (2016). Acute exposure to a quinalphos containing insecticide (convoy) causes genetic damage and nuclear changes in peripheral erythrocytes of silver barb Barbonymus gonionotus. Env Poll219: 949–956.
Sancho E Ferrando MD Anderu E. (1997). Sublethal effects of an organo-phosphate insecticide on the European eel Anguilla Anguilla. Ecotoxicol Env Safe36(1): 57–65.
Sastry KV Siddiqui AA. (1984). Some haematological biochemical and enzymological parameters of a freshwater teleost fish Channa punctatus exposed to sublethal concentration of quinalphos. Pest Biochem Physiol22: 8–13.
Seiki T. (1992). Acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides stripped khifejaw Oplegnathus hasciatus. Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish 48(5): 599–603.
Shanthi K Saradhamani N Binukumari S Manimegalai M. (2009). A comparative study on biochemical changes in fresh water fish Tilapia mossambica in Ukkadam and Kurichi pond Coimbatore Tamil Nadu. Ind J Env Ecoplan16(1): 231–239.
Sharaf S Khan A Khan MZ Aslam F Saleemi MK Mahmood F. (2010). Clinico-hematological and micronuclear changes induced by cypermethrin in broiler chicks: their attenuation with vitamin E and selenium. Exp Toxicol Path62: 333–341.
Simmons SO Fan CY Yeoman K Wakefield J Ramabhadran R. (2011). NRF2 oxidative stress induced by heavy metals is cell type dependent. Curr Chem Genom5: 1–12.
Steenken S. (1989). Purine basis nucleosides and nucleotides: aqueous solution redox chemistry and transformation reactions of their radical cations and e- and OH adducts. Chem Rev89: 503–520.
Suvardhan K Kumar KS Chiranjeevi P. (2005). Extractive spectrofluorometric determination of quinalphos using fluoresce in environmental samples. Env Mon Assess108: 217–227.
Zhang QX Melnikov Z Feierman DE. (2004). Characterization of the acetaminophen-induced degradation of cytochrome P450-3A4 and the proteolytic pathway. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol94(4): 191–200.