Physical properties of gluten-free bread caused by water addition

Open access


In this paper, we propose for the first time a description (regression and canonical form) of the changes in the physical properties of several types of natural gluten-free bread produced with different amounts of water in the recipe. Five types of bread, made of corn flour (100%), rice flour (100%), corn and rice flour (50:50%), buckwheat, corn, and rice flour (30:35:35%), were investigated. It has been noticed that, by changing the amount of water addition to the dough, it is possible to significantly affect the quality of different types of natural gluten-free bread. Addition of water from 80 to 120% of flour mass, resulted in significant changes in the quality of bread. Bread made of corn flour required the largest amount of water addition (120%); however, bread made of rice flour was characterized by a better quality with the lowest amount of water addition (80%), while bread made of corn and rice flour and buckwheat, corn, and rice flour were characterized by the best quality when the amount of water addition was 90%. Changes in the physical properties of bread were described as second degree polynomial regression equations or by linear regression and the canonical form was proposed.

De la Hera E., Talegón M., Caballero P., and Gómez M., 2013. Influence of maize flour particle size on gluten-free bread-making. J. Sci. Food Agric., 93, 924-932.

Gambuś H., Sikora M., and Ziobro R., 2007. The effect of composition of hydrocolloids on properties of gluten-free bread. Acta Sci. Pol.-Technol. Alimentaria, 63, 61-74.

Gámbaro A., Giménez A., Ares G., and Gilardi V., 2006. Influence of enzymes on the texture of brown pan bread. J. Texture Studies, 37, 300-314.

Gómez M., Talegón M., and De La Hera E., 2013. Influence of mixing on quality of gluten-free bread. J. Food Quality, 36, 139-145.

Gray J.A. and Bemiller J.N., 2003. Bread staling: Molecular basis and control. CRFSFS: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Sci. Food Safety, 2, 1-21.

Hager A.S. and Arendt E., 2013. Influence of hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC), xanthan gum and their combination on loaf specific volume, crumb hardness and crumb grain characteristics of gluten-free breads based on rice, maize, teff and buckwheat. Food Hydrocolloids, 32, 195-203.

Hager A.S., Wolter A., Czerny M., Bez, J., Zannini E., Arendt E.K., and Czerny M., 2012. Investigation of product quality, sensory profile and ultrastructure of breads made from a range of commercial gluten-free flours compared to their wheat counterparts. European Food Res. Technol., 235, 333-344.

He H. and Hoseney R.C., 1990. Changes in bread firmness and moisture during long-term storage. Cereal Chem., 67, 603-605.

Hong C.S. and Kim K.E., 2006. Buckwheat allergy. In: Nutraceutical Proteins and Peptides in Health and Disease. (Eds Y. Mine, S. Fereidoon). Taylor Francis, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

ISO 20483, 2006. Cereals and pulses – determination of the nitrogen content and calculation of the crude protein content-Kjeldahl method).

ISO 2171, 2007. Cereals, pulses and by-products – determination of ash yield by incineration.

ISO 11085, 2008. Cereals, cereals-based products and animal feeding stuffs – determination of crude fat and total fat content by the randall extraction method.

Jakubczyk T. and Haber T., 1983. Analysis of cereals and cereals products. Warsaw University of Life Sciences Press, Warsaw, Poland.

Karaoğlu M.M., 2012. Effect of Cephalaria syriaca addition on rheological properties of composite flour. Int. Agrophys., 26, 387-393.

Kasprzak M. and Rzedzicki Z., 2010. Effect of pea seed coat admixture on physical properties and chemical composition of bread. Int. Agrophys., 24, 149-156.

Lazaridou A., Duta D., Papageorgiou M., Belc N., and Biliaderis C.G., 2007. Effects of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality parameters in gluten-free formulations. J. Food Eng., 79, 1033-1047.

Lim H.S., Park S.H., Ghafoor K., Hwang S.Y., and Park J., 2011. Quality and antioxidant property of bread containing turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cultivated in South Korea. Food Chem., 112, 1577-1582.

Mariotti M., Pagani A., and Lucisano M., 2013. The role of buckwheat and HPMC on the breadmaking properties of some commercial gluten-free bread mixtures. Food Hydrocolloids, 30, 393-400.

Matos M.E. and Rosell C.M., 2012. Relationship between instrumental parameters and sensory characteristics in gluten-free breads. European Food Res. Technol., 235(1), 107-117.

Mccarthy D.F., Gallagher E., Gormley T.R., Schober T.J., and Arendt E.K., 2005. Application of response surface methodology in the development of gluten-free bread. Cereal Chem., 82, 609-615.

Nishita D.D., Roberts R.L., and Bean M.M., 1975. Development of a yeast-leavened rice-bread formula. Cereal Chem., 535, 626-635.

Różyło R., 2013. Determining the heterogeneity of wheat bread-crumb texture baked using two different methods: New application. Int. J. Food Properties, 161, 154-167.

Różyło R., 2014a. New potential in using millet-based yeast fermented leaven for composite wheat bread preparation. J. Food Nutr. Res., 53(3), 240-250.

Różyło R., 2014b. Effect of process modifications in two cycles of dough mixing on physical properties of wheat bread baked from weak flour. Food Bioprocess Technol., 7, 774-783.

Różyło R., Dziki D., and Laskowski J., 2014. Changes in the physical and the sensorial properties of wheat bread caused by interruption and slowing of the fermentation of yeast-based leaven. J. Cereal Sci., 59, 88-94.

Różyło R., Rudy S., Krzykowski A., Dziki D., Gawlik-Dziki U., Różyło K., and Skonecki S., 2015a. Effect of adding fresh and freeze-dried buckwheat sourdough on gluten-free bread quality. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 50, 313-322.

Różyło R., Rudy S., Krzykowski A., and Dziki D., 2015b. Novel application of freeze-dried amaranth sourdough in gluten-free bread production. J. Food Process Eng., 38, 135-143.

Sabanis D. and Tzia C., 2011. Effect of hydrocolloids on selected properties of gluten-free dough and bread. Food Sci. Technol. Int., 174, 279-291.

Sakac M., Torbica A., Sedej I., and Hadnadev M., 2011. Influence of breadmaking on antioxidant capacity of gluten free breads based on rice and buckwheat flours. Food Res. Int. J., 449, 2806-2813.

Schober T.J., Messerschmidt M., Bean S.R., Park S-H., and Arendt E.K., 2005. Gluten-free bread from sorghum: Quality differences among hybrids. Cereal Chem., 824, 394-404.

Schoenlechner R., Mandala I., Kiskini A., Kostaropoulos A., and Berghofer E., 2010. Effect of water, albumen and fat on the quality of gluten-free bread containing amaranth. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 454, 661-669.

Sciarini L.S., Perez G.T., Lamballerie M., De Leon A.E., and Ribotta P.D., 2012. Partial-baking process on gluten-free bread: impact of hydrocolloid addition. Food Bioprocess Technol., 55, 1724-1732.

Wronkowska M., Haros M., and Soral-Śmietana M., 2013. Effect of starch Substitution by buckwheat flour on gluten-free bread quality. Food Bioprocess Technol., 6, 1820-1827.

Wronkowska M. and Soral-Śmietana M., 2008. Buckwheat flour – a valuable component of gluten-free formulations. Polish J. Food Nutrition Sci., 581, 59-63.

Ziobro R., Korus J., Juszczak L., and Witczak T., 2013. Influence of inulin on physical characteristics and staling rate of gluten-free bread. J. Food Eng., 116, 21-27.

International Agrophysics

The Journal of Institute of Agrophysics of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.242
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.267

CiteScore 2017: 1.38

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.435
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.849

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 201 198 38
PDF Downloads 89 88 18