Scaling the Hydraulic Functions of A Water Repellent Sandy Soil

Open access


The heterogeneity of both unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention was measured with a high spatial resolution on a transect using an evaporation method. Fifteen undisturbed 100 cm3 soil cores were taken on a transect every 10 cm from the topsoil of a water repellent sandy site. Five dynamic water retention curves and four unsaturated conductivity curves were determined for each core. We conducted measurements without further saturation in the laboratory in order to achieve field-like conditions. The initial water contents were heterogeneous, indicating different hysteretic conditions and water repellent areas. The scattering of the water retention curves was high, while the heterogeneity of unsaturated conductivity curves was unexpectedly low. Two scaling approaches were used to describe the heterogeneity: one with and one without considering hysteresis. The concept of scaling applies well to describing the heterogeneity of both hydraulic functions. Including hysteresis leads to similar results than excluding hysteresis. The distribution of the hydraulic conductivity and the water retention were independent from each other. The results give important information for numerical simulation of the water flow with heterogeneous hydraulic functions.

Basile A., Ciollaro G., and Coppolla A., 2003. Hysteresis in soil water characteristics as a key to interpreting comparisons of laboratory and field measured hydraulic properties. Water Resour. Res., 39(2), 1355-1367.

Carminati A., Kaestner A., Lehman P., and Flühler H., 2008. Unsaturated water flow across soil aggregate contacts. Adv. Water Res., 31, 1221-1232.

Clausnitzer V., Hopmans J.W., and Nielsen D.R., 1992. Simultaneous scaling of soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. Wat. Res. Res., 28, 19-31.

Deurer M., Duijnisveld W.H.M., and Böttcher J., 2000. Spatial analysis of water characteristic functions in a sandy podzol under pine forest. Wat. Res. Res., 36, 2925-2935.

Hendrayanto D., Kosugi K., and Mizuyama T., 2001. Scaling hydraulic properties of forest soils. Hydrol. Proces., 14, 521-538.

Kelleners T.J., Beekma J., and Chaudhry M.R., 1999. Spatially variable soil hydraulic properties for simulation of field-scale solute transport in the unsaturated zone. Geoderma, 92, 199-215.

Kodesova R., Kutilek M., Vesela J., and Matula S., 2003. Scaling of two-phase pressure-saturation releationships: water-air and oil-air systems. Int. Agrophysics, 17, 157-162.

Kool J.B. and Parker J.C., 1987. Development and evaluation of closed-form expressions for hysteretic soil hydraulic properties. Water Res. Res., 23, 105-114.

Kosugi K. and Hopmans J.W., 1998. Scaling water retention curves for soils with lognormal pore-size distribution. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 62, 1496-1505.

Letey J., Carrillo M.L.K., and Pang X.P., 2000. Approaches to characterize the degree of water repellency. J. Hydrol., 231-232, 61-65.

Lipiec J., Walczak R., Witkowska-Walczak B., Nosalewicz A., Słowińska-Jurkiewicz A., and Sławiński C., 2007. The effect of aggregate size and pore structure of silt loam soils of different genesis. Soil Till. Res., 97, 239-246.

Luckner L., van Genuchten M.T., and Nielsen D.R., 1989. Aconsistent set of parametric models for the two-phase flow of immiscible fluids in the subsurface. Water Res. Res., 25, 2187-2193.

Mallants D., Mohanty B.P., Jacques D., and Feyen J., 1996. Spatial variability of hydraulic properties in a multi-layered soil profile. Soil Sci., 161, 167-181.

Millan H. and Gonzalez-Posada M., 2005. Modeling soil water retention scaling. Comparison of a classical fractal model with a piecewise approach. Geoderma, 125, 25-38.

Miller E. E. and Miller R.D., 1956. Physical theory for capillary flow phenomena. J. Appl. Phys., 27, 324-332.

Mualem Y., 1976. A new model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media. Water Res. Res., 12(3), 513-522.

Mualem Y., 1984. A modified dependent domain theory of Hysteresis. Soil Sci., 137, 283-291.

Naasz R., Michel J.-C., and Charpentier S., 2005. Measuring Hysteretic Hydraulic Properties of Peat and Pine Bark using a Transient Method. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 69, 13-22.

Plagge R., 1991. Bestimmung der ungesättigten hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit. Ph.D. Thesis, Technical University, Berlin, Germany.

Rockhold M.L., Rossi R.E., and Hills R.G., 1996. Application of similar media scaling and conditional simulation for modeling water flow and tritium transport at the Las Cruces trench site. Water Res. Res., 32, 595-609.

Roth C.H., Malicki M.A., and Plagge R., 1992. Empirical evaluation of the relationship between soil dielectric constant and volumetric water content as the basis for calibrating soil moisture measurements by TDR. Soil Sci., 43, 1-13.

Russo D. and Bresler E., 1980. Scaling soil hydraulic properties of a heterogeneous soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 44, 681-683.

Schlenther L., Marschner B., Hoffmann C., and Renger M., 1996. Ursachen mangelnder Anwuchserfolge bei der Aufforstung der Rieselfelder in Berlin-Buch – bodenkundliche Aspekte. Verh. Ges. Ökol., 25, 349-359.

Sławiński C., Witkowska-Walczak B., Lipiec J., and Nosalewicz A., 2011. Effect of aggregate size on water movement in soils. International Agrophys., 25, 53-58.

Sposito G., 1998. Scale dependence and scale invariance in hydrology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Stoffregen H., 1998. Hydraulische Eigenschaften deponiespezifischer Materialien unter Berücksichtigung von Temperaturänderungen. Ph.D. Thesis, Technical University, Berlin, Germany.

Täumer K., Stoffregen H., and Wessolek G., 2005. Determination of repellency distribution using soil organic matter and water content. Geoderma, 125, 107-115.

Tuli A., Kosugi K., and Hopmans J.W., 2001. Simultaneous scaling of soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions assuming lognormal pore-size distribution. Advances Water Res., 24, 677-688.

van Genuchten M.T., 1980. A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 44, 892-898.

Warrick A.W., Mullen G.J., and Nielsen D.R., 1977. Scaling field measured soil hydraulic properties using a similar media concept. Water Resour. Res., 13, 355-362.

Witkowska-Walczak B., 2006. Hysteresis between wetting and drying processes as affected by soil aggregate size. Int. Agrophysics, 20, 359-365.

Zhu J. and Mohanty B.P., 2006. Effective factor for transient infiltration in heterogeneous soils. J. Hydrol., 39(1-4), 96-108.

International Agrophysics

The Journal of Institute of Agrophysics of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.242
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.267

CiteScore 2018: 1.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.399
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.891


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 207 166 16
PDF Downloads 71 66 7