Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

Open access

Abstract

The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

Austin R.B., Ford M.A., and Morgan C.L., 1989. Genetic improvement in the field of winter wheat: a further evaluation. J. Agric. Sci. (Cam.), 112, 295-301.

Berry P.M., Griffin J.M., Sylvester-Bradley R., Scott P.K.,Spink J.H., Boker C.J., and Clare R.W., 2000. Controlling plant from through husbandry to minimize lodging in wheat. Field Crop Res., 67, 59-81.

Budzyñski W. and Szempliñski W., 2003. Biology of development (in Polish). In: Szczegó³owa Uprawa Rooelin (Eds Z. Jasiñska, A. Kotecki). AWA Press, Wroc³aw, Poland.

Donald C.M., 1962. In search of yield. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci., 28, 171-178.

Fufa H., Baenziger P.S., Beecher B.S., Graybosch R.A.,Eskridge K.M., and Nelson L.A., 2005. Genetic improvement trends in agronomic performances and end-use quality characteristics among hard red winter wheat cultivars in Nebraska. Euph., 144, 187-198.

Gauder M., Graeff-Honninger S., and Claupen W., 2011. Identifying the regional straw potential for energetic use on the basis of statistical information. Biom. Bioen., 35, 1646-1654.

Harasim A., 1994. Relationship between the yield of grain and straw in cereals (in Polish). Pamiêtnik Pu³awski, 104, 51-59.

Jarosch A.M., Neumann E., Oltmanns M., and Raupp J., 2008. Yield and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal root colonization of organically or minerally fertilized wheat grown on a sandy soil. 17th Int. Symp. CIEC, November 24-27, Cairo, Egypt.

Jensen J.W., Magid J., Hansen-Moller J., Andersen S.B., andBruun S., 2011. Genetic variation in degrability of wheat straw and potential for improvement through plant breeding. Biom. Bioen., 35, 1114-1120.

Kuoe J., Madej A., and Kopiñski J., 2006. Balans of straw in regional terms (in Polish). In: Regional differentiation of agricultural production in Poland (Ed. A. Harasim). Raporty IUNG-PIB, Pu³awy, Poland.

Lawless C., Semenov M.A., and Jamieson P.D., 2005. A wheat canopy model linking leaf area and phenology. Eur. J. Agron., 22, 19-32.

Masanori T., Shiotsu F., Bian J.,MorokumaM., and KusutaniA.,2010. Effects of reduction in plant height induced by chlor mequat on radiation interception and radiation-use efficiency in wheat in Southwest Japan. Plant Prod. Sci., 13, 67-73.

Mgheni D.M., Ndemanisho E.E., Hvelplund T., and WeisbjergM.R., 2001. Evaluation of the feeding value of two tropical cereal straws, maize stover, rice straw and their botanical fractions by nylon and mobile bag technique. African J. Sci. Technol., 2, 65-71.

Noworolnik K., 2007. Principles of optimum production technology for the cereals (in Polish). Post. Nauk Roln., 326(1), 31-48.

Olumekun V.O., 1996. An analysis of the response of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) to Cycocel (Chlormequat) application. J. Agron. Crop Sci., 176, 145-150.

Pabin J., Lipiec J., Wo³ek S., and Biskupski A., 2003. Effect of different tillage systems and straw management on some physical properties of soil and on the yield of winter rye in monoculture. Int. Agrophysics, 17, 175-181.

Podlaski S., 2007. The impact of breeding progress on plant production (in Polish). Post. Nauk Roln., 326, 3-22.

Podolska G., 1999. The structure and output of winter wheat as affected by selected agronomic factors and plant model (in Polish). Pamiêtnik Pu³awski, 116, 7-133.

Przulj N. and Momcilovic V., 2001. Genetic variation for dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and translocation in tworowed spring barley I. Dry matter yield translocation. Eur. J. Agron., 15, 241-254.

Rajala A. and Peltonen-Sainio P., 2001. Plant growth regulator effects on spring cereal root and shoot growth. Agron. J., 93, 936-943.

Sanvicente P., Lazarevitch S., Blouet A., and Guckert A., 1999. Morphological and anatomical modification in winter barley culm after late plant growth regulator treatment. Eur. J. Agron., 11, 45-51.

Sener O., Arslan M., Soysal Y., and Erayman M., 2009. Estimates of relative yield potential and genetic improvement of wheat cultivars in the Mediterranean region. J. Agric. Sci., 147, 323-332.

Singh S., Dutt D., and Tyagi C.H., 2011. Complete characterization of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum PBW-343 L. Emend. Fiori and Paol.) - a renewable source of fibres for pulp and paper making. BioResour., 6, 154-177.

Sticksel E., Maidl F.X., Retzer F., Dennert J., and FischbeckG., 2000. Efficiency of grain production of winter wheat as affected by N fertilization under particular consideration of single culm sink size. Eur. J. Agron., 13, 287-294.

Summers M.D., Jenkins B.M., Hyde P.R., Williams J.F.,Mutters R.G., Scardacci S.C., and Hair M.W., 2003. Mass production and allocation in rice with implications for straw harvesting and utilization. Biom. Bioen., 24, 163-173.

Tavakoli H., Mohtasebi S.S., and Jafari A., 2009. Physical and mechanical properties of wheat straw as influenced by moisture content. Int. Agrophys., 23, 175-181.

Tripathi S.C., Sayre K.D., Kaul J.N., and Narang R.S., 2003. Growth and morphology of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) culms and their association with lodging: effect of genotypes, N levels and etephon. Field Crop Res., 84, 271-290.

Zalud Z., McMaster G.S., and Wilhelm W.W., 2003. Evaluating SHOOTGRO4.0 as a potential winter wheat management in the Czech Republic. Eur. J. Agron., 19, 495-507.

International Agrophysics

The Journal of Institute of Agrophysics of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.242
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.267

CiteScore 2018: 1.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.399
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.891

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 208 175 11
PDF Downloads 72 62 3