A 3-year field study was conducted to assess effects of composted municipal waste on some properties, distribution of Zn, Cu in a calcareous soil and uptake of these metals by wheat. The treatments were 0, 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha-1 of municipal solidwastewhichwas applied in three consecutive years. The application of composted municipal waste increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the aggregate stability,the organic carbon content and electrical conductivity, whereas it slightly decreased the soil pH and bulk density. A significant increase in the concentration of Zn and Cu were observed with increasing number and rate of compost application. The distribution of Zn and Cu between the different fractions in untreated and treated soils showed that the majority of Zn and Cu were in the residual form. Finally, the levels of Zn and Cu were higher in grains of wheat grown in composttreated plots compared to that grown in the control plots.
Achiba B.W., Gabteni N., Lakhdar A., Laing G.D., VerlooM., Jedidi N., and Gallali T., 2009. Effects of 5-year application of municipal solid waste compost on the distribution and mobility of heavymetals in a Tunisian calcareous soil. Agric. Ecosys. Environ., 130, 156-163.
Achiba B.W., Lakhdar A., Gabteni N., Laing G.D., VerlooM., BoeckxP.,VanCleemputO., JedidiN., andGallaliT., 2010. Accumulation and fractionation of trace metals in a Tunisian calcareous soil amended with farmyard manure and municipal solid waste compost. J. Hazard. Mater., 176, 99-108.
Alloway B.J., 2007. Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition. IZA Press, Brussels, Belgium.
AminiM.,AfyuniM.,KhademiH.,AbbaspourK., and Schulin R., 2005. Mapping risk of cadmium and lead contamination to human health in soils of central Iran. Sci. Total Environ., 347, 64-77.
Baruah T.C. and Barthakur H.P., 1997. A Textbook of Soil Analysis. Vikas Press, Delhi, India.
Benton Jones J.J., 2001. Laboratory Guide for Conducting Soil Tests and Plant Analysis. CRC Press, New York, USA.
Cakmak I., 2008. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: agronomic or genetic biofortification. Plant Soil, 302, 1-17.
Franzluebbers A.J., 2002. Water infiltration and soil structure related to organic matter and its stratification with depth. Soil Till. Res., 66, 197-205.
García-Orenes F., Guerrero C., Mataix-Solera J., Navarro-Pedreño J., Gómez I., and Mataix-Beneyto J., 2005. Factors controlling the aggregate stability and bulk density in two different degraded soils amended with biosolids. Soil Till. Res., 82, 65-76.
G³¹b T., Zaleski T., Erhart E., and Hartl W., 2008. Effect of biowaste compost and nitrogen fertilization on macroporosity and biopores of Molli-gleyic Fluvisol soil. Int. Agrophysics, 22, 303-311.
Habteselassie M.Y., Stark J.M., Miller B.E., Thacker S.G., and Norton J.M., 2006. Gross nitrogen transformations in an agricultural soil after repeated dairy-waste application. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer J., 70, 1338-1348.
Han F.X. and Banin A., 2000. Long-term transformations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, Mn and Fe in the native arid-zone soils under saturated conditions. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 31, 943-957.
Hargreaves J.C., Adl M.S., and Warman P.R., 2008. A review of the use of composted municipal solid waste in agriculture. Agric. Ecosys. Environ., 123, 1-14.
Kabala C. and Singh B.R., 2001. Fractionation and mobility of copper lead and zinc in soil profiles in the vicinity of a copper smelter. J. Environ. Qual., 30, 485-492.
Kabata-Pendias A. and Pendias H., 2000. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Karami M., Afyuni M., Rezainejad Y., and Schulin R., 2009. Heavymetal uptake bywheat froma sewage sludge-amended calcareous soil. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys., 83, 51-61.
Keller C., Kayser A., Keller A., and Schulin R., 2001. Heavymetal uptake by agricultural crops from sewage-sludge treated soils of the upper Swiss Rhine valley and the effect of time. In: Environmental restoration of metals-contaminated soil (Ed. I.K. Iskandar).Lewis Press,Washington,DC,USA.
Köleli N., Eker S., and Cakmak I., 2004. Effect of zinc supply on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zincdeficient soil. Environ. Poll., 131, 453-459.
Madrid F., Lopez R., and Cabrera F., 2007. Metal accumulation in soil after application of municipal solid waste compost under intensive farming conditions. Agric. Ecosys. Environ., 119, 249-256.
Mohamed I., Ahamadou B., Li M., Gong C., Cai P., Liang W., and Huang Q., 2010. Fractionation of copper and cadmium and their binding with soil organic matter in a contaminated soil amended with organic materials. J. Soil Sediment, 10, 973-982.
Mohammad M.J. and Athamneh B.M., 2004. Changes in soil fertility and plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals in response to sewage sludge application to calcareous soils. J. Agron., 3, 229-236.
Pansu M. and Gautheyrou J., 2006. Handbook of Soil Analysis-Mineralogical, Organic and Inorganic Methods. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, Germany.
Price J.G.,WrightA.N.,TiltK.M., andBoydR.L., 2009. Organic matter application improves posttransplant root growth of three native woody shrubs. Hort. Sci., 44, 377-383.
Salbu B., Krekling T., and Oughton D.H., 1998. Characterization of radioactive particles in the environment. Analyst., 123, 843-849.
SAS, 2002. SAS User’s Guide: statistics’’ Version 9.0. Cary, NC, USA.
Shuman L.M., Dudka S., and Das K., 2001. Zinc forms and plant availability in compost amended soil. Water Air Soil Poll., 128, 1-11.
SinghR.P. andAgrawalM., 2007.Effects of sewage sludge amendment on heavy metal accumulation and consequent responses of Beta vulgaris plants. Chemosphere, 67, 2229-2240.
Tewari G., Tewari M.L., Srivastava P.C., and Ram B., 2009. Chemical transformation of copper in some sludge-amended soils., Arch. Agron. Soil Sci., 55, 415-427
Udom B.E., Mbagwu J.S.C., AdesodunJ.K., and Agbim N.N., 2004. Distributions of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in tropical Ultisol after long-term disposal of sewage sludge. Environ. Int., 30, 467-470.
Walker C.L.F. and Black R.E., 2007. Functional indicators for assessing zinc deficiency. Food Nutr. Bull., 23, 454-479.
Zare M., Afyuni M., and Abbaspour K., 2010. Effects of biosolides application on temporal variations in soil physical and unsaturated hydraulic properties. J. Res. Sci. Tech., 7, 227-235.
Zhang M., Heaney D., Henriquez B., Solberg E., and Bittner E., 2006. A four year study on influence of biosolids/MSW compost application in less productive soils in Alberta: nutrient dynamics. Compost Sci. Util., 14, 68-80.
Zorpas A.A., 2008. Sewage sludge compost evaluation in oats, pepper and eggplant cultivation, dynamic soil - dynamic plants. Global Sci. Book, 2(2), 103-109.
Zorpas A.A., Loizidoy M., and Inglezakis V., 2008. Heavy metals fractionation before, during and after composting of sewage sludge with natural zeolite. Waste Manag., 28, 2054-2060.